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Other - Timeline history of Drug Use and Prohibition

Discussion in 'Drug Policy Reform & Narco Politics' started by jkolt89, Jan 13, 2008.

  1. jkolt89

    jkolt89 Titanium Member

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    Male from U.K.
    This is a history of drug use/prohibition based on the Appendix of
    *Ceremonial Chemistry* by Thomas Szasz. The book is published
    by "Doubleday/Anchor" Garden City, New York, 1975. I included his
    references. I have added several items of interest and I have deleted
    some things I did not feel were relevant (Szasz documents the parallel
    course of relgious history). All unattributed items (no footnote)
    are from the book.



    There are some real jewels in this collection. The entry for 1949 is

    especially profound.



    Note how many times governments have banned vaious drugs. At one time

    tabacco was illegal in more than a dozen states! Fat lot of good it did.



    I saw Szasz speak not too long ago, he is a wonderful person, absolutely

    brilliant and very charming. The book is now in its second edition.



    ----------------------------------------------------------------------



    c. 5000 B.C. The Sumerians use opium, suggested by the fact that

    they have an ideogram for it which has been translated

    as HUL, meaning "joy" or "rejoicing." [Alfred R. Lindensmith,

    *Addiction and Opiates.* p. 207]



    c. 3500 B.C. Earlist historical record of the production of alcohol:

    the description of a brewery in an an Egyptian papyrus.

    [Joel Fort, *The Pleasure Seekers*, p. 14]



    c. 3000 B.C. Approximate date of the supposed origin of the use of

    tea in China.



    c. 2500 B.C. Earlist historical evidence of the eating of poppy seeds

    among the Lake Dwellers on Switzerland. [Ashley Montagu,

    The long search for euphoria, *Refelections*, 1:62-69

    (May-June), 1966; p. 66]



    c. 2000 B.C. Earliest record of prohibitionist teaching, by an

    Egyptian priest, who writes to his pupil: "I, thy

    superior, forbid thee to go to the taverns. Thou

    art degraded like beasts." [W.F. Crafts *et al*.,

    *Intoxicating Drinks and Drugs*, p. 5]



    c. 350 B.C. Proverbs, 31:6-7: "Give strong drink to him

    who is perishing, and wine to those in bitter distress;

    let them drink and forget their poverty, and remember

    their misery no more."



    c. 300 B.C. Theophrastus (371-287 B.C.), Greek naturalist and philosopher,

    records what has remained as the earlies undisputed

    reference to the use of poppy juice.



    c. 250 B.C. Psalms, 104:14-15: "Thou dost cause grass to grow for the

    cattle and plants for man to cultivate, that he may

    bring forth food from the earth, and wine to gladden

    the heart of man.



    350 A.D. Earliest mention of tea, in a Chinese dictionary.



    4th century St. John Chrysostom (345-407), Bishop of Constantinople:

    "I hear man cry, 'Would there be no wine! O folly! O

    madness!' Is it wine that causes this abuse? No, for

    if you say, 'Would there were no light!' because of

    the informers, and would there were no women because

    of adultery." [Quoted in Berton Roueche, *The Neutral

    Spirit*, pp. 150-151]



    c. 450 Babylonian Talmud: "Wine is at the head of all medicines;

    where wine is lacking, drugs are necessary." [Quoted in

    Burton Stevenson (Ed.), *The Macmillan Book of Proverbs*,

    p. 21]



    c. 1000 Opium is widely used in China and the far East. [Alfred

    A. Lindensmith, *The Addict and the Law*, p. 194]



    1493 The use of tobacco is introduced into Europe by

    Columbus and his crew returning from America.



    c. 1500 According to J.D. Rolleston, a British medical

    historian, a medieval Russian cure for drunkenness

    consisted in "taking a piece of pork, putting it

    secretly in a Jew's bed for nine days, and then giving

    it to the drunkard in a pulverized form, who will turn

    away from drinking as a Jew would from pork." [Quoted in

    Roueche, op. cit. p. 144]



    c. 1525 Paracelsus (1490-1541) introduces laudanum, or tincture

    of opium, into the practice of medicine.



    1600 Shakespeare: "Falstaff. . . . If I had a thousand sons

    the / first human principle I would teach them should /

    be, to foreswear thin portion and to addict themselves

    to sack." ("Sack" is an obsolete term for "sweet wine"

    like sherry). [William Shakespeare, *Second Part of King

    Henry the Forth*, Act IV, Scene III, lines 133-136]



    17th century The prince of the petty state of Waldeck pays ten thalers

    to anyone who denounces a coffee drinker. [Griffith Edwards,

    Psychoactive substances, *The Listener*, March 23, 1972,

    pp. 360-363; p.361]



    17th century In Russia, Czar Michael Federovitch executes anyone

    on whom tobacco is found. "Czar Alexei Mikhailovitch

    rules that anyone caught with tobacco should be

    tortured until he gave up the name of the supplier."

    [Ibid.]



    1613 John Rolf, the husband of the Indian princess Pocahontas,

    sends the first shipment of Virginia tobacco from

    Jamestown to England.



    c. 1650 The use of tobacco is prohibited in Bavaria, Saxony,

    and in Zurich, but the prohibitions are ineffective.

    Sultan Murad IV of the Ottoman Empire decrees the

    death penalty for smoking tobacco: "Whereever there

    Sultan went on his travels or on a military expedition

    his halting-places were always distinguished by a

    terrible rise in executions. Even on the battlefield

    he was fond of surprising men in the act of smoking,

    when he would punish them by beheading, hanging, quartering

    or crushing their hands and feed. . . . Nevertheless,

    in spite of all the horrors and persecution. . . the

    passion for smoking still persisted." [Edward M. Brecher

    et al., *Licit and Illicit Drugs*, p. 212]



    1680 Thomas Syndenham (1625-80): "Among the remedies which it

    has pleased the Almighty God to give to man to relieve his

    sufferings, none is so universal and efficacious as opium."

    [Quoted in Louis Goodman and Alfred Gilman, *The

    Pharmacological Basis of Theraputics*, First Edition (1941),

    p. 186]



    1690 The "Act for the Encouraging of the Distillation of Brandy

    and Spirits from Corn" is enacted in England. [Roueche, op.

    cit. p. 27]



    1691 In Luneberg, Germany, the penalty for smoking (tobacco)

    is death.



    1717 Liquor licenses in Middlesex (England) are granted only

    to those who "would take oaths of allegiance and of

    belief in the King's supremacy over the Church" [G.E.G.

    Catlin, *Liquor Control*, p. 14]



    1736 The Gin Act (England) is enacted with the avowed object

    of making spirits "come so dear to the consumer that the

    poor will not be able to launch into excessive use of them."

    This effort results in general lawbreaking and fails to

    halt the steady rise in the consumption of even legally

    produced and sold liquor. [Ibid., p. 15]



    1745 The magistrates of one London division demanded that

    "publicans and wine-merchants should swear that they

    anathematized the doctrine of Transubstantiation."

    [Ibid., p. 14]



    1762 Thomas Dover, and English physician, introduces his

    prescription for a diaphoretic powder," which he

    recommends mainly for the treatment of gout. Soon

    named "Dover's powder," this compound becomes the most

    widely used opium preparation during the next 150 years.



    1785 Benjamin Rush publishes his *Inquiry into the Effects

    of Ardent Spirits on the Human Body and Mind*; in it,

    he calls the intemperate use of distilled spirits a "disease," and estimates the annual rate of death

    due to alcoholism in the United States as "not less than

    4000 people" in a population then of less than 6 million.

    [Quoted in S. S. Rosenberg (Ed.), *Alcohol and Health*,

    p. 26]



    1789 The first American temperance society is formed in Litchfield,

    Connecticut. [Crafts et. al., op. cit., p. 9]



    1790 Benjamin Rush persuades his associates at the Philadelphia

    College of Physicians to send an appeal to Congress to

    "impose such heavy duties upon all distilled spirits as shall

    be effective to restrain their intemperate use in the country."

    [Quoted in ibid.]



    1792 The first prohibitory laws against opium in China are

    promulgated. The punishment decreed for keepers of opium

    shops is strangulation.



    1792 The Whisky Rebellion, a protest by farmers in western

    Pennsylvania against a federal tax on liquor, breaks out

    and is put down by overwhelming force sent to the area

    by George Washington. Samuel Taylor Coleridge writes

    "Kubla Khan" while under the influence of opium.



    1800 Napoleon's army, returning from Egypt, introduces cannibis

    (hashish, marijuana) into France. Avante-garde artists

    and writers in Paris develop their own cannabis ritual,

    leading, in 1844, to the establishment of *Le Club

    de Haschischins.* [William A. Emboden, Jr., Ritual

    Use of Cannabis Sativa L.: A historical-ethnographic

    survey, in Peter T. Furst (Ed.), *Flesh of the Gods*,

    pp. 214-236; pp. 227-228]



    1801 On Jefferson's recommendation, the federal duty on liquor

    was abolished. [Catlin, op. cit., p. 113]



    1804 Thomas Trotter, an Edinburgh physician, publishes *An Essay,

    Medical, Philosophical, and Chemical on Drunkenness and Its

    Effects on the Human Body*: "In medical language, I consider

    drunkenness, strictly speaking, to be a disease, produced by

    a remote cause, and giving birth to actions and movements

    in the living body that disorder the functions of health. . .

    The habit of drunkenness is a disease of the mind." [Quoted

    in Roueche, op. cit. pp. 87-88]



    1805 Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner, a German chemist, isolates

    and describes morphine.



    1822 Thomas De Quincey's *Confessions of an English Opium

    Eater* is published. He notes that the opium habit,

    like any other habit, must be learned: "Making allowance

    for constitutional differences, I should say that *in

    less that 120 days* no habit of opium-eating could

    be formed strong enough to call for any extraordinary

    self-conquest in renouncing it, even suddenly renouncing

    it. On Saturday you are an opium eater, on Sunday no longer

    such." [Thomas De Quincey, *Confessions of an English Opium

    Eater* (1822), p. 143]



    1826 The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance is

    founded in Boston. By 1833, there are 6,000 local

    Temperance societies, with more than one million members.



    1839-42 The first Opium War. The British force upon China the

    trade in opium, a trade the Chinese had declared illegal..

    [Montagu, op. cit. p. 67]



    1840 Benjamin Parsons, and English clergyman, declares:

    ". . . alcohol stands preeminent as a destroyer.

    . . . I never knew a person become insane who was not

    in the habit of taking a portion of alcohol every day."

    Parsons lists forty-two distinct diseases caused by

    alcohol, among them inflammation of the brain, scrofula,

    mania, dropsy, nephritis, and gout. [Quoted in Roueche,

    op. cit. pp. 87-88]



    1841 Dr. Jacques Joseph Moreau uses hashish in treatment of mental

    patients at the Bicetre.





    1842 Abraham Lincoln: "In my judgement, such of us as have never

    fallen victims, have been spared more from the absence of

    apatite, than from any mental or moral superiority over those

    who have. Indeed, I believe, if we take habitual drunkards

    as a class, their heads and their hearts will bear an

    advantageous comparison with those of any other class."

    [Abraham Lincoln, Temperance address, in Roy P. Basler

    (Ed.), *The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. 1,

    p. 258]



    1844 Cocaine is isolated in its pure form.



    1845 A law prohibiting the public sale of liquor is enacted

    in New York State. It is repealed in 1847.



    1847 The American Medical Association is founded.



    1852 Susan B. Anthony establishes the Women's State Temperance

    Society of New York, the first such society formed by and

    for women. Many of the early feminists, such as Elizabeth

    Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Abby Kelly, are also

    ardent prohibitionists. [Andrew Sinclar, *Era of Excess*,

    p. 92]



    1852 The American Pharmaceutical Association is founded. The

    Association's 1856 Constitution lists one of its goals

    as: "To as much as possible restrict the dispensing and sale

    of medicines to regularly educated druggests and apothecaries.

    [Quoted in David Musto, *The American Disease*, p. 258]



    1856 The Second Opium War. The British, with help from the French,

    extend their powers to distribute opium in China.



    1862 Internal Revenue Act enacted imposing a license fee of twenty

    dollars on retail liquor dealers, and a tax of one dollar

    a barrel on beer and twenty cents a gallon on spirits.

    [Sinclare, op. cit. p 152]



    1864 Adolf von Baeyer, a twenty-nine-year-old assistant of

    Friedrich August Kekule (the discoverer of the molecular

    structure of benzene) in Ghent, synthesizes barbituric acid,

    the first barbiturate.



    1868 Dr. George Wood, a professor of the theory and practice

    of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, president

    of the American Philosophical Society, and the author

    of a leading American test, *Treatise on Therapeutics*,

    describes the pharmacological effects of opium as follows:

    "A sensation of fullness is felt in the head, soon to be

    followed by a universal feeling of delicious ease and

    comfort, with an elevation and expansion of the whole moral

    and intellectual nature, which is, I think, the most

    characteristic of its effects. . . . It seems to make

    the individual, for the time, a better and greater man. . . .

    The hallucinations, the delirious imaginations of alcoholic

    intoxication, are, in general, quite wanting. Along

    with this emotional and intellectual elevation, there is

    also increased muscular energy; and the capacity to act,

    and to bear fatigue, is greatly augmented. [Quoted in

    Musto, op. cit. pp. 71-72]



    1869 The Prohibition Party is formed. Gerrit Smith, twice

    Abolitionist candidate for President, an associate

    of John Brown, and a crusading prohibitionist, declares:

    "Our involuntary slaves are set free, but our millions

    of voluntary slaves still clang their chains. The lot of

    the literal slave, of him whom others have enslaved, is indeed

    a hard one; nevertheless, it is a paradise compared

    with the lot of him who has enslaved himself to alcohol."

    [Quoted in Sinclar, op. cit. pp. 83-84]



    1874 The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is founded in Cleveland.

    In 1883, Frances Willard a leader of the W.C.T.U. forms the

    World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union.



    1882 The law in the United States, and the world, making

    "temperance education" a part of the required course in

    public schools is enacted. In 1886, Congress makes such

    education mandatory in the District of Columbia, and in

    territorial, military, and naval schools. By 1900, all the

    states have similar laws. [Crafts et. al., op. cit. p. 72]



    1882 The Personal Liberty League of the United States is founded

    to oppose the increasing momentum of movements for

    compulsory abstinence from alcohol. [Catlin, op. cit. p. 114]



    1883 Dr. Theodor Aschenbrandt, a German army physician, secures

    a supply of pure cocaine from the pharmaceutical firm of

    Merck, issues it to Bavarian soldiers during their

    maneuvers, and reports on the beneficial effects of the

    drug in increasing the soldiers' ability to endure fatigue.

    [Brecher et. al. op. cit. p. 272]



    1884 Sigmund Freud treats his depression with cocaine, and reports

    feeling "exhilaration and lasting euphoria, which is in no

    way differs from the normal euphoria of the healthy person. . .

    You perceive an increase in self-control and possess more

    vitality and capacity for work. . . . In other words, you

    are simply more normal, and it is soon hard to believe that

    you are under the influence of a drug." [Quoted in Ernest

    Jones, *The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 1, p. 82]



    1884 Laws are enacted to make anti-alcohol teaching compulsory

    in public schools in New York State. The following year

    similar laws are passed in Pennsylvania, with other states

    soon following suit.



    1885 The Report of the Royal Commission on Opium concludes that

    opium is more like the Westerner's liquor than a substance

    to be feared and abhorred. [Quoted in Musto, op. cit. p. 29]



    1889 The John Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore, Maryland, is opened.

    One of its world-famous founders, Dr. William Stewart Halsted,

    is a morphine addict. He continues to use morphine in large

    doses throughout his phenomenally successful surgical career

    lasting until his death in 1922.



    1894 The Report of the Indian Hemp Drug Comission, running to

    over three thousand pages in seven volumes, is published.

    This inquiry, commissioned by the British government,

    concluded: "There is no evidence of any weight regarding the

    mental and moral injuries from the moderate use of these

    drugs. .. . . Moderation does not lead to excess in hemp any

    more than it does in alcohol. Regular, moderate use of ganja

    or bhang produces the same effects as moderate and regular

    doses of whiskey." The commission's proposal to tax bhang

    is never put into effect, in part, perhaps, because one of

    the commissioners, an Indian, cautions that Moslem law and

    Hindu custom forbid "taxing anything that gives pleasure

    to the poor." [Quoted in Norman Taylor, The pleasant assassin:

    The story of marihuana, in David Solomon (Ed.) *The

    Marijuana Papers*, pp. 31-47, p. 41]



    1894 Norman Kerr, and English physician and president of the

    British Society for the study of Inebriety, declares:

    "Drunkenness has generally been regarded as . . . a sin

    a vice, or a crime. . . [But] there is now a consensus of

    intelligent opinion that habitual and periodic drunkenness

    is often either a symptom or sequel of disease . . . . The

    victim can no more resist [alcohol] than an man with ague

    can resist shivering. [Quoted in Roueche, op. cit., pp.

    107-108]



    1898 Diacetylmorphine (heroin) is synthesized in Germany.

    It is widely lauded as a "safe preparation free from

    addiction-forming properties." [Montagu, op. cit. p. 68]



    1900 In an address to the Ecumenical Missionary Conference, Rev.

    Wilbur F. Crafts declares: "No Christian celebration of the

    completion of nineteen Christian centuries has yet been

    arranged. Could there be a fitter one than the general

    adoption, by separate and joint action of the great nations

    of the world, of the new policy of civilization, in which

    Great Britian is leading, the policy of prohibition for the

    native races, in the interest of commerce as well as

    conscience, since the liquor traffic among child races,

    even more manifestly than in civilized lands, injures all

    other trades by producing poverty, disease, and death.

    Our object, more profoundly viewed, is to create a more

    favorable environment for the child races that civilized

    nations are essaying to civilize and Christianize."

    [Quoted in Crafts, et. al., op. cit., p. 14]



    1900 James R. L. Daly, writing in the *Boston Medical and Surgical

    Journal*, declares: "It [heroin] possesses many advantages

    over morphine. . . . It is not hypnotic; and there is no

    danger of acquiring the habit. . . ." [Quoted in Henry

    H. Lennard et. al. Methadone treatment (letters),

    *Science*, 179:1078-1079 (March 16), 1973; p. 1079]



    1901 The Senate adopts a resolution, introduced by Henry Cabot

    Lodge, to forbid the sale by American traders of opium

    and alcohol "to aboriginal tribes and uncivilized races."

    Theses provisions are later extended to include "uncivilized

    elements in America itself and in its territories, such as

    Indians, Alaskans, the inhabitants of Hawaii, railroad workers,

    and immigrants at ports of entry." [Sinclar, op. cit. p. 33]



    1902 The Committee on the Acquirement of the Drug Habit of the

    American Pharmaceutical Association declares: "If the

    Chinaman cannot get along without his 'dope,' we can get

    along without him." [Quoted in ibid, p. 17]



    1902 George E. Petty, writing in the *Alabama Medical Journal*,

    observes: "Many articles have appeared in the medical

    literature during the last two years lauding this new agent

    . . . . When we consider the fact that heroin is a morphine

    derivative . . . it does not seem reasonable that such a

    claim could be well founded. It is strange that such a claim

    should mislead anyone or that there should be found among

    the members of our profession those who would reiterate

    and accentuate it without first subjecting it to the most

    critical tests, but such is the fact." [Quoted in Lennard

    et. al., op. cit. p. 1079]



    1903 The composition of Coca-Cola is changed, caffeine replacing

    the cocaine it contained until this time. {Musto, op. cit.

    p. 43]



    1904 Charles Lyman, president of the International Reform Bureau,

    petitions the President of the United States "to induce

    Great Britain to release China from the enforced opium

    traffic. . . .We need not recall in detail that China

    prohibited the sale of opium except as a medicine, until

    the sale was forced upon that country by Great Britian

    in the opium war of 1840." [Quoted in Crafts et al., op.

    cit. p. 230]



    1905 Senator Henry W. Blair, in a letter to Rev. Wilbur F.

    Crafts, Superintendent of the International Reform

    Bureau: "The temperance movement must include all poisonous

    substances which create unnatural appetite, and international

    prohibition is the goal." [Quoted in ibid.]



    1906 The first Pure Food and Drug Act becomes law; until its

    enactment, it was possible to buy, in stores or by mail order

    medicines containing morphine, cocaine, or heroin, and without

    their being so labeled.



    1906 *Squibb's Materia Medical* lists heroin as "a remedy of much

    value . . . is is also used as a mild anodyne and as a

    substitute for morphine in combatting the morphine habit.

    [Quoted in Lennard et al., op. cit. p. 1079]



    1909 The United States prohibits the importation of smoking

    opium. [Lawrence Kolb, *Drug Addiction*, pp. 145-146]



    1910 Dr. Hamilton Wright, considered by some the father of U.S.

    anti-narcotics laws, reports that American contractors give

    cocaine to their Negro employees to get more work out of

    them. [Musto, op. cit. p. 180]



    1912 A writer in *Century* magazine proclaims: "The relation

    of tobacco, especially in the form of cigarettes, and

    alcohol and opium is a very close one. . . . Morphine is

    the legitimate consequence of alcohol, and alcohol is the

    legitimate consequence of tobacco. Cigarettes, drink,

    opium, is the logical and regular series." And a physician

    warns: "[There is] no energy more destructive of soul, mind,

    and body, or more subversive of good morals than the

    cigarette. The fight against the cigarette is a fight for

    civilization." [Sinclar, op. cit., p. 180]



    1912 The first international Opium Convention meets at the

    Hague, and recommends various measures for the international

    control of the trade in opium. Supsequent Opium Conventions

    are held in 1913 and 1914.



    1912 Phenobarbital is introduced into therapeutics under the trade

    name of Luminal.



    1913 The Sixteenth Amendment, creating the legal authority for

    federal income tax, is enacted. Between 1870 and 1915,

    the tax on liquor provides from one-half to two-thirds

    of the whole of the internal revenue of the United States,

    amounting, after the turn of the century, to about $200

    million annually. The Sixteenth Amendment thus makes possible,

    just seven years later, the Eighteenth Amendment.



    1914 Dr. Edward H Williams cites Dr. Christopher Kochs "Most

    of the attack upon white women of the South are the

    direct result of the cocaine crazed Negro brain."

    Dr. Williams concluded that " . . Negro cocaine fiends

    are now a known Southern menace."

    [New York Times, Feb. 8, 1914]





    1914 The Harrison Narcotic Act is enacted, controlling the

    sale of opium and opium derivatives, and cocaine.



    1914 Congressman Richard P. Hobson of Alabama, urging a prohibition

    amendment to the Constitution, asserts: "Liquor will actually

    make a brute out of a Negro, causing him to commit unnatural

    crimes. The effect is the same on the white man, though

    the white man being further evolved it takes longer time

    to reduce him to the same level." Negro leaders join

    the crusade against alcohol. [Ibid., p. 29]



    1916 The *Pharmacopoeia of the United States* drops whiskey and

    brandy from its list of drugs. Four years later, American

    physicians begin prescribing these "drugs" in quantities

    never before prescribed by doctors.



    1917 The president of the American Medical Association endorses

    national prohibition. The House of Delegates of the

    Association passes a resolution stating: "Resolved, The

    American Medical Association opposes the use of alcohol

    as a beverage; and be it further Resolved, That the use

    of alcohol as a therapeutic agent should be discourages."

    By 1928, physicians make an estimated $40,000,000 annually

    by writing prescriptions for whiskey." [Ibid. p. 61]



    1917 The American Medical Association passes a resolution declaring

    that "sexual continence is compatible with health and is

    the best prevention of venereal infections," and one of

    the methods for controlling syphilis is by controlling alcohol.

    Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels prohibits the practice

    of distributing contraceptives to sailors bound on shore

    leave, and Congress passes laws setting up "dry and decent

    zones" around military camps. "Many barkeepers are fined

    for selling liquor to men in uniform. Only at Coney Island

    could soldiers and sailors change into the grateful anonymity

    of bathing suits and drink without molestation from patriotic

    passers-by." [Ibid. pp. 117-118]



    1918 The Anti-Saloon League calls the "liquor traffic" "un-American,"

    pro-German, crime-producing, food-wasting, youth-corrupting,

    home-wrecking, [and] treasonable." [Quoted in ibid. p. 121]



    1919 The Eighteenth (Prohibition) Amendment is added to the U.S.

    Constitution. It is repealed in 1933.



    1920 The U.S. Department of Agriculture publishes a pamphlet

    urging Americans to grow cannabis (marijuana) as a profitable

    undertaking. [David F. Musto, An historical perspective on

    legal and medical responses to substance abuse, *Villanova

    Law Review*, 18:808-817 (May), 1973; p. 816]



    1920-1933 The use of alcohol is prohibited in the United States.

    In 1932 alone, approximately 45,000 persons receive jail

    sentences for alcohol offenses. During the first eleven

    years of the Volstead Act, 17,971 persons are appointed

    to the Prohibition Bureau. 11,982 are terminated "without

    prejudice," and 1,604 are dismissed for bribery, extortion,

    theft, falsification of records, conspiracy, forgery, and

    perjury. [Fort, op. cit. p. 69]



    1921 The U.S. Treasury Departmen issues regulations outlining

    the treatment of addiction permitted under the Harrison

    Act. In Syracuse, New York, the narcotics clinic doctors

    report curing 90 per cent of their addicts. [Lindensmith,

    *The Addict and the Law*, p. 141]



    1921 Thomas S. Blair, M.D., chief of the Bureau of Drug Control

    of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, publishes a paper

    in the *Journal of the American Medical Association* in which

    he characterizes the Indian peyote religion a "habit

    indulgence in certain cactaceous plants," calls the belief

    system "superstition" and those who sell peyote "dope vendors,"

    and urges the passage of a bill in Congress that would prohibit

    the use of peyote among the Indian tribes of the Southwest.

    He concludes with this revealing plea for abolition: "The

    great difficulty in suppressing this habit among the Indians

    arises from the fact that the commercial interests involved

    in the peyote traffic are strongly entrenched, and they

    exploit the Indian. . . . Added to this is the superstition

    of the Indian who believes in the Peyote Church. As soon

    as an effort is made to suppress peyote, the cry is raised

    that it is unconstitutional to do so and is an invasion of

    religious liberty. Suppose the Negros of the South had

    Cocaine Church!" [Thomas S. Blair, Habit indulgence in

    certain cactaceous plants among the Indians, *Journal

    of the American Medical Association*, 76:1033-1034 (April

    9), 1921; p. 1034]



    1921 Cigarettes are illegal in fourteen states, and ninety-two

    anti-cigarette bills are pending in twenty-eight states.

    Young women are expelled from college for smoking cigarettes.

    [Brecher et al., op. cit. p. 492]



    1921 The Council of the American Medical Association refuses

    to confirm the Associations 1917 Resolution on alcohol.

    In the first six months after the enactment of the Volstead

    Act, more than 15,000 physicians and 57,000 druggests and

    drug manufacturers apply for licenses to prescribe and sell

    liquor. [Sinclair, op. cit., p. 492]



    1921 Alfred C. Prentice, M.D. a member of the Committee on

    Narcotic Drugs of the American Medical Association, declares

    "Public opinion regarding the vice of drug addiction has

    been deliberately and consistently corrupted through

    propaganda in both the medical and lay press. . . . The

    shallow pretense that drug addiction is a 'disease'. . . .

    has been asserted and urged in volumes of 'literature'

    by self-styled 'specialists.'" [Alfred C Prentice, The

    Problem of the narcotic drug addict, *Journal of the

    American Medical Association*, 76:1551-1556; p. 1553]



    1924 The manufacture of heroin is prohibited in the United

    States.



    1925 Robert A. Schless: "I believe that most drug addiction today

    is due directly to the Harrison Anti-Narcotic Act, which

    forbids the sale of narcotics without a physician's

    prescription. . . . Addicts who are broke act as *agent

    provocateurs* for the peddlers, being rewarded by gifts

    of heroin or credit for supplies. The Harrison Act made

    the drug peddler, and the drug peddler makes drug addicts."

    [Robert A. Schless, The drug addict, *American Mercury*,

    4:196-199 (Feb.), 1925; p. 198]



    1928 In a nationwide radio broadcast entitled "The Struggle

    of Mankind Against Its Deadlist Foe," celebrating the

    second annual Narcotic Education Week, Richmond P. Hobson,

    prohibition crusader and anti-narcotics propagandist,

    declares: "Suppose it were announced that there were more

    than a million lepers among our people. Think what a shock

    the announcement would produce! Yet drug addiction is far

    more incurable than leprosy, far more tragic to its victims,

    and is spreading like a moral and physical scourge. . . .

    Most of the daylight robberies, daring holdups, cruel murders

    and similar crimes of violence are now known to be committed

    chiefly by drug addicts, who constitute the primary cause

    of our alarming crime wave. Drug addiction is more

    communicable and less curable that leprosy. . . .

    Upon the issue hangs the perpetuation of civilization,

    the destiny of the world, and the future of the human

    race." [Quoted in Musto, *The American Disease*, p. 191]



    1928 It is estimated that in Germany one out of every hundred

    physicians is a morphine addict, consuming 0.1 grams of

    the alkaloid or more per day. [Eric Hesse, *Narcotics and

    Drug Addiction*, p. 41]



    1929 About one gallon of denatured industrial in ten is

    diverted into bootleg liquor. About forty Americans

    per million die each year from drinking illegal alcohol,

    mainly as a result of methyl (wood) alcohol poisoning.

    [Sinclare, op. cit. p. 201]



    1930 The Federal Bureau of Narcotics is formed. Many of its

    agents, including its first commissioner, Harry J. Anslinger,

    are former prohibition agents.



    1935 The American Medical Association passes a resolution declaring

    that "alcoholics are valid patients." [Quoted in Neil Kessel

    and Henry Walton, *Alcoholism*, p. 21]



    1936 The Pan-American Coffee Burreau is organized to promote

    coffee use in the U.S. Between 1938 and 1941 coffee

    consumption increased 20%. From 1914 to 1938 consumption

    had increased 20%. [Coffee, *Encyclopedia Britannica* (1949),

    Vol. 5, p. 975A]



    1937 Shortly before the Marijuana Tax Act, Commissioner Harry

    J. Anslinger writes: "How many murders, suicides, robberies,

    criminal assaults, hold-ups, burglaries, and deeds of

    maniacal insanity it [marijuana] causes each year, especially

    among the young, can only be conjectured." [Quoted in

    John Kaplan, *Marijuana*, p. 92]



    1937 The Marijuana Tax Act is enacted.



    1938 Since the enactment of the Harrison Act in 1914, 25,000

    physicians have been arraigned on narcotics charges, and

    3,000 have served penitentiary sentences. [Kolb, op. cit.

    p. 146]



    1938 Dr. Albert Hoffman, a chemist at Sandoz Laboratories in

    Basle, Switzerland, synthesizes LSD. Five years later he

    inadvertently ingests a small amount of it, and observes and

    reports effects on himself.



    1941 Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek orders the complete suppression

    of the poppy; laws are enacted providing the death penalty

    for anyone guilty of cultivating the poppy, manufacturing

    opium, or offering it for sale. [Lindensmith, *The Addict

    and the Law*, 198]



    1943 Colonel J.M. Phalen, editor of the *Military Surgeon*,

    declares in an editorial entitled "The Marijuana Bugaboo":

    "The smoking of the leaves, flowers, and seeds of Cannibis

    sativa is no more harmful than the smoking of tobacco. . . .

    It is hoped that no witch hunt will be instituted in the

    military service over a problem that does not exist."

    [Quoted in ibid. p. 234]



    1946 According to some estimates there are 40,000,000 opium smokers

    in China. [Hesse, op. cit. p. 24]





    1949 Ludwig von Mises, leading modern free-market economist

    and social philosopher: "Opium and morphine are certainly

    dangerous, habit-forming drugs. But once the principle

    is admitted that is the duty of government to protect

    the individual against his own foolishness, no serious

    objections can be advanced against further encroachments.

    A good case could be made out in favor of the prohibition

    of alcohol and nicotine. And why limit the governments

    benevolent providence to the protection of the individual's

    body only? Is is not the harm a man can inflect on his

    mind and soul even more disastrous than any bodily

    evils? Why not prevent him from reading bad books and

    seeing bad plays, from looking at bad paintings and statues

    and listening to bad music? The mischief done by bad

    ideologies, surely, is much more pernicious, both for

    the individual and for the whole society, than that

    done by narcotic drugs." [Ludwig von Mises, *Human Action*,

    pp. 728-729]



    1951 According to United Nations estimates, there are approximately

    200 million marijuana users in the world, the major places

    being India, Egypt, North Africa, Mexico, and the United

    States. [Jock Young, *The Drug Takers*, p. 11]



    1951 Twenty thousand pound of opium, three hundred pounds of

    heroin, and various opium-smoking devices are publicly

    burned in Canton China. Thirty-seven opium addicts

    are executed in the southwest of China. [Margulies,

    China has no drug problem--why? *Parade*, 0ct. 15 1972,

    p. 22]



    1954 Four-fifths of the French people questioned about wine

    assert that wine is "good for one's health," and one quarter

    hold that it is "indispensable." It is estimated that a

    third of the electorate in France receives all or part of

    its income from the production or sale of alcoholic

    beverages; and that there is one outlet for every forty-

    five inhabitants. [Kessel and Walton, op. cit. pp. 45, 73]



    1955 The Prasidium des Deutschen Arztetages declares: "Treatment

    of the drug addict should be effected in the closed sector

    of a psychiatric institution. Ambulatory treatment is useless

    and in conflict, moreover, with principles of medical

    ethics." The view is quoted approvingly, as representative

    of the opinion of "most of the authors recommending

    commitment to an institution," by the World Health

    Organization in 1962. [World Health Organization,

    *The Treatment of Drug Addicts*, p. 5]



    1955 The Shah of Iran prohibits the cultivation and use of opium,

    used in the country for thousands of years; the prohibition

    creates a flourishing illicit market in opium. In 1969

    the prohibition is lifted, opium growing is resumed under

    state inspection, and more than 110,000 persons receive

    opium from physicians and pharmacies as "registered addicts."

    [Henry Kamm, They shoot opium smugglers in Iran, but . . ."

    *The New York Times Magazine*, Feb. 11, 1973, pp. 42-45]



    1956 The Narcotics Control Act in enacted; it provides the death

    penalty, if recommended by the jury, for the sale of heroin

    to a person under eighteen by one over eighteen. [Lindesmith,

    *The Addict and the Law*, p. 26]



    1958 Ten percent of the arable land in Italy is under viticulture;

    two million people earn their living wholly or partly from

    the production or sale of wine. [Kessel and Walton, op. cit.,

    p. 46]



    1960 The United States report to the United Nations Commission on

    Narcotic Drugs for 1960 states: "There were 44,906 addicts

    in the United States on December 31, 1960 . . ." [Lindesmith,

    *The Addict and The Law*, p. 100]



    1961 The United Nations' "Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs

    of 10 March 1961" is ratified. Among the obligations of

    the signatory states are the following: "Art. 42. Know

    users of drugs and persons charges with an offense under

    this Law may be committed by an examining magistrate

    to a nursing home. . . . Rules shall be also laid down

    for the treatment in such nursing homes of unconvicted

    drug addicts and dangerous alcoholics." [Charles Vaille,

    A model law for the application of the Single Convention

    on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, *United Nations Bulletin on

    Narcotics*, 21:1-12 (April-June), 1961]



    1963 Tobacco sales total $8.08 billion, of which $3.3 billion go

    to federal, state, and local taxes. A news release from

    the tobacco industry proudly states: "Tobacco products

    pass across sales counters more frequently than anything

    else--except money." [Tobacco: After publicity surge

    Surgeon General's Report seems to have little enduring

    effect, *Science*, 145:1021-1022 (Sept. 4), 1964; p. 1021]



    1964 The British Medical Association, in a Memorandum of Evidence

    to the Standing Medical Advisory Committee's Special Sub-

    committee on Alcoholism, declares: "We feel that in some very

    bad cases, compulsory detention in hospital offer the only

    hope of successful treatment. . . . We believe that some

    alcoholics would welcome compulsory removal and detention

    in hospital until treatment is completed." [Quoted in

    Kessel and Walton, op. cit. p. 126]



    1964 An editorial in *The New York Times* calls attention

    to the fact that "the Government continues to be the tobacco

    industry's biggest booster. The Department of Agriculture

    lost $16 million in supporting the price of tobacco in the

    last fiscal year, and stands to loose even more because it

    has just raised the subsidy that tobacco growers will get

    on their 1964 crop. At the same time, the Food for Peace

    program is getting rid of surplus stocks of tobacco abroad."

    [Editorial, Bigger agricultural subsidies. . .even more for

    tobacco, *The New York Times*, Feb. 1, 1964, p. 22]



    1966 Sen. Warren G. Magnuson makes public a program, sponsored by

    the Agriculture Department, to subsidize "attempts to increase

    cigarette consumption abroad. . . . The Department is paying

    to stimulate cigarette smoking in a travelogue for $210,000

    to subsidize cigarette commercials in Japan, Thailand,

    and Austria." An Agriculture Department spokesman

    corroborates that "the two programs were prepared under

    a congressional authorization to expand overseas markets

    for U.S. farm commodities." [Edwin B. Haakinsom, Senator

    shocked at U.S. try to hike cigarette use abroad,

    *Syracuse Herald-American*, Jan. 9, 1966, p. 2]



    1966 Congress enacts the "Narcotics Addict Rehabilitation Act,

    inaugurating a federal civil commitment program for addicts.





    1966 C. W. Sandman, Jr. chairman of the New Jersey Narcotic Drug

    Study Commission, declares that LSD is "the greatest threat

    facing the country today . . . more dangerous than the

    Vietnam War." [Quoted in Brecher et al., op. cit. p. 369]



    1967 New York State's "Narcotics Addiction Control Program"

    goes into effect. It is estimated to cost $400 million

    in three years, and is hailed by Government Rockefeller

    as the "start of an unending war . . ." Under the new

    law, judges are empowered to commit addicts for compulsory

    treatment for up to five years. [Murray Schumach, Plan for

    addicts will open today: Governor hails start, *The New

    York Times*, April 1, 1967]



    1967 The tobacco industry in the United States spends an estimated

    $250 million on advertising smoking. [Editorial, It

    depends on you, *Health News* (New York State), 45:1

    (March), 1968]



    1968 The U.S. tobacco industry has gross sales of $8 billion.

    Americans smoke 544 billion cigarettes. [Fort, op. cit.

    p. 21]



    1968 Canadians buy almost 3 billion aspirin tablets and approximately

    56 million standard does of amphetamines. About 556 standard

    doses of barbituates are also produced or imported for

    consumption in Canada. [Canadian Government's Commission

    of Inquiry, *The Non-Medical Uses of Drugs*, p. 184



    1968 Six to seven percent of all prescriptions written under the

    British National Health Service are for barbituates; it is

    estimated that about 500,000 British are regular users.

    [Young, op. cit. p. 25]



    1968 Brooklyn councilman Julius S. Moskowitz charges that the

    work of New York City's Addiction Services Agency, under

    its retiring Commissioner, Dr. Efren Ramierez, was a

    "fraud," and that "not a single addict has been cured."

    [Charles G. Bennett, Addiction agency called a "fraud,"

    *New York Times*, Dec. 11, 1968, p. 47]



    1969 U.S. production and value of some medical chemicals:

    barbituates: 800,000 pounds, $2.5 million; aspirin

    (exclusive of salicylic acid) 37 milliion pounds,

    value "withheld to avoid disclosing figures for

    individual producers"; salicylic acid: 13 million

    pounds, $13 million; tranquilizers: 1.5 million

    pounds, $7 million. [*Statistical Abstracts of the

    United States*, 1971 92nd Annual Edition, p. 75]



    1969 The parents of 6,000 secondary-level students in

    Clifton, New Jersey, are sent letters by the Board

    of Education asking permission to conduct saliva tests

    on their children to determine whether or not they use

    marijuana. [Saliva tests asked for Jersey youths on

    marijuana use, *New York Times*, Apr. 11, 1969, p. 12]



    1970 Dr. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Nobel Laureate in Medicine and

    Physiology, in reply to being asked what he would do if

    he were twenty today: "I would share with my classmates

    rejection of the whole world as it is--all of it. Is there

    any point in studying and work? Fornication--at least that

    is something good. What else is there to do? Fornicate

    and take drugs against the terrible strain of idiots who

    govern the world." [Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, in *The New

    York Times*, Feb. 20, 1970, quoted in Mary Breastead, *Oh!

    Sex Education!*, p. 359]



    1971 President Nixon declares that "America's Public Enemy

    No. 1 is drug abuse." In a message to Congress, the President

    calls for the creation of a Special Action Office of Drug

    Abuse Prevention. [The New Public Enemy No. 1, *Time*,

    June 28, 1971, p. 18]



    1971 On June 30, 1971, President Cvedet Sunay of Turkey decrees

    that all poppy cultivation and opium production will be

    forbidden beginning in the fall of 1972. [Patricia M Wald

    et al. (Eds.), *Dealing with Drug Abuse*, p. 257]



    1972 Myles J. Ambrose, Special Assistant Attorney General of

    the United States: "As of 1960, the Bureau of Narcotics

    estimated that we had somewhere in the neighborhood

    of 55,000 addicts . . . they estimate now the figure is

    560,000. [Quoted in *U.S. News and World Report*, April

    3, 1972, p. 38]



    1972 The Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs proposes

    restricting the use of barbituates on the ground that they

    "are more dangerous than heroin." [Restrictions proposed

    on barbituate sales, *Syracuse Herald-Journal*, Mar 16,

    1972, p. 32]



    1972 The house votes 366 to 0 to authorize "a $1 billion,

    three-year federal attack on drug abuse." [$1 billion

    voted for drug fight, *Syracuse Herald-Journal*, March

    16, 1972, p. 32]



    1972 At the Bronx house of corrections, out of a total of 780

    inmates, approximately 400 are given tranquilizers such

    as Valium, Elavil, Thorazine, and Librium. "'I think they

    [the inmates] would be doing better without some of the

    medication,' said Capt. Robert Brown, a correctional officer.

    He said that in a way the medications made his job harder

    . . . rather than becoming calm, he said, an inmate who

    had become addicted to his medication 'will do anything

    when he can't get it.'" [Ronald Smothers, Muslims: What's

    behind the violence, *The New York Times*, Dec. 26, 1972,

    p. 18]



    1972 In England, the pharmacy cost of heroin is $.04 per grain

    (60 mg.), or $.00067 per mg. In the United States, the

    street price is $30 to $90 per grain, or $.50 or $1.50

    per mg. [Wald et al. (Eds.) op. cit. p. 28]



    1973 A nationwide Gallop poll reveals that 67 percent

    of the adults interviewed "support the proposal of New York

    Governer Nelson Rockefeller that all sellers of hard drugs

    be given life imprisonment without possibility of parole."

    [George Gallup, Life for pushers, *Syracuse Herald-American*,

    Feb. 11, 1973]



    1973 Michael R. Sonnenreich, Executive Director of the National

    Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse, declares: "About

    four years ago we spent a total of $66.4 million for the

    entire federal effort in the drug abuse area. . . .

    This year we have spent $796.3 million and the budget

    estimates that have been submitted indicate that we will

    exceed the $1 billion mark. When we do so, we become,

    for want of a better term, a drug abuse industrial

    complex.: [Michael R. Sonnenreich, Discussion of the

    Final Report of the National Commission on Marijuana

    and Drug Abuse, *Villanova Law Review*, 18:817-827 (May),

    1973; p. 818]



    197? Operation Intercept. All vehicles returning from Mexico

    are checked by Nixon's order. Long lines occur and, as

    usual no dent is made in drug traffic.



    1981 Congress ammends the 1878 Posse Comitatus Act, which

    forbids the armed forces to enforce civil law, so that

    the military could provide surveillance planes and ships

    for interdiction purposes.



    1984 U.S. busts 10,000 pounds of marijuana on farms in Mexico.

    The seizures, made on five farms in an isolated section of

    Chihuahua state, suggest a 70 percent increase in estimates

    that total U.S. consumption was 13,000 to 14,000 tons in 1982.

    Furthermore, the seizures add up to nearly eight times the

    1300 tons that officials had calculated Mexico produced

    in 1983. [the San Francisco Chronicle, Saturday,

    November 24, 1984]



    1985 Pentagon spends $40 million on interdiction.



    1986 The Communist Party boss, Boris Yeltsin said that the

    Moscow school system is rife with drug addiction,

    drunkenness and principles that take bribes. He

    said that drug addiction has become such a problem

    that there are 3700 registered addicts in Moscow. [The

    San Francisco Chronicle, Sept. 22, 1986, p. 12]
     
  2. trptamene

    trptamene Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Sweetness, maybe this should/could be a wiki article?
     
  3. Paracelsus

    Paracelsus Platinum Member & Advisor

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    I don't think book excerpts should be in the Drugs Wiki. Same for other copyrighted work. Even if credit is given, it still doesn't seem right to include a huge quote in the Wiki.