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Drug info - Tobacco smoke is an MAOI??

Discussion in 'Tobacco' started by Stuck, May 16, 2007.

  1. Stuck

    Stuck Silver Member

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    Human monoamine oxidase is inhibited by tobacco smoke: beta-carboline alkaloids act as potent and reversible inhibitors
    by
    Herraiz T, Chaparro C.
    Spanish Council for Scientific Research, CSIC,
    Instituto de Fermentaciones Industriales,
    Juan de la Cierva, 3,
    28006, Madrid, Spain.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Jan 14;326(2):378-86

    ABSTRACT


    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a mitochondrial outer-membrane flavoenzyme involved in brain and peripheral oxidative catabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotic amines, including neurotoxic amines, and a well-known target for antidepressant and neuroprotective drugs. Recently, positron emission tomography imaging has shown that smokers have a much lower activity of peripheral and brain MAO-A (30%) and -B (40%) isozymes compared to non-smokers. This MAO inhibition results from a pharmacological effect of smoke, but little is known about its mechanism. Working with mainstream smoke collected from commercial cigarettes we confirmed that cigarette smoke is a potent inhibitor of human MAO-A and -B isozymes. MAO inhibition was partly reversible, competitive for MAO-A, and a mixed-type inhibition for MAO-B. Two beta-carboline alkaloids, norharman (beta-carboline) and harman (1-methyl-beta-carboline), were identified by GC-MS, quantified, and isolated from the mainstream smoke by solid phase extraction and HPLC. Kinetics analysis revealed that beta-carbolines from cigarette smoke were competitive, reversible, and potent inhibitors of MAO enzymes. Norharman was an inhibitor of MAO-A (K(i)=1.2+/-0.18muM) and MAO-B (K(i)=1.12+/-0.19muM), and harman of MAO-A (K(i)=55.54+/-5.3nM). beta-Carboline alkaloids are psychopharmacologically active compounds that may occur endogenously in human tissues, including the brain. These results suggest that beta-carboline alkaloids from cigarette smoke acting as potent reversible inhibitors of MAO enzymes may contribute to the MAO-reduced activity produced by tobacco smoke in smokers. The presence of MAO inhibitors in smoke like beta-carbolines and others may help us to understand some of the purported neuropharmacological effects associated with smoking​
    wtf...swims never heard this before.
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Nov 14, 2007
  2. Stuck

    Stuck Silver Member

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    would this include smokeless tobacco as well?
     
  3. Heretic.Ape.

    Heretic.Ape. Platinum Member & Advisor

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    interesting find. Did you put it in the archive? I've heard of this property of tabacco but hadn't realized how much of an effect it had. I see potential for an interesting comparative study for the forum: differences between effects per dosage of psychoactive compounds in smokers and non-smokers. Could be interesting.
     
  4. Stuck

    Stuck Silver Member

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    Archive? Sorry, I'm new. ;p

    Perhaps this explains the synergy of smoking cigarettes while drunk, rollling, etc.

    Do you guys think it would be safe to take Phenethylamine(metabolized by MAO-B) and smoke?
     
  5. Heretic.Ape.

    Heretic.Ape. Platinum Member & Advisor

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    Labmonkey went ahead and tracked down the article and threw it in the archive, with credit given to our friend Stuck.
     
  6. Heretic.Ape.

    Heretic.Ape. Platinum Member & Advisor

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    That site your link leads to is great! I think it's one of my new favorites.
     
  7. Nagognog2

    Nagognog2 Newbie

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    It has been known for decades that tobacco smoke contains Harman - which is a b-Carboline closely related chemically to harmine/harmaline.
     
  8. Stuck

    Stuck Silver Member

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    After doing some research SWIM has formed a hypothesis. Cheese contains a chemical called tyramine. The tyramine molecule is made up of phenethylamine. Phenethylamine is the basis of amphetamine. Phenethylamine normally does not reach the brain because it is instantly metabolized by MAO-B in blood platelets(except in certain cases, i.e. MDMA, amphetamines). If tobacco smoke is an actual MAOI and inhibits MAO-B, phenethylamine would be able to reach the brain and cause significant release of dopamine, or create the same basic effects of an amphetamine. Therefore, [smoking cigarettes + eating cheese = speed].


    SWIM is not a chemist and is most likely wrong, but this is what he has concluded from his bit of research.

    SWIM also did a google on tobacco smoke and cheese. There was a patent made for a cheese filtered cigarrete in 1966. O_O
     
  9. svenghali

    svenghali Silver Member

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    That's what the French have been up to all along...
    Could this be why tobacco also kicks up DXM trips sometimes?
     
  10. Stuck

    Stuck Silver Member

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    Yeah, that would explain how tobacco synergizes with almost anything. If someone is drunk, less alcohol is metabolized by the now inhibited MAOs and more reaches the brain. Same for DXM, MDMA, etc.

    SWIM also read that tobacco companies include said MAOI(harmane) in their products for a stronger effect of nicotine. (SWIM is assuming harmane is a less intense maoi than prescription maois, especially when smoked.) This also explains the prescription of MAOIs to those trying to quit smoking.

    SWIM is planning on taking a normal dose of AMP(contains Phenethylamine) tonight and then putting in a huge dip of skoal to see what happens.
     
    Last edited: May 16, 2007
  11. bob_arctor

    bob_arctor Titanium Member

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    What is "a huge dip of skoal"?
     
  12. Heretic.Ape.

    Heretic.Ape. Platinum Member & Advisor

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    ^ chewing tobacco
     
  13. svenghali

    svenghali Silver Member

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    Keep us updated, I'm telling this to SWIM and he's mildly excited.
     
  14. rxbandit

    rxbandit Gold Member

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    skoal isnt chewing tobacco. I made that mistake the first time I tried SkOAL with horrible consequences. Skoal or dip is tobacco you hold in your lip. The tobacco releases chemical and every five minutes you spit streams of black salivia. Its a really attractive habit.
     
  15. svenghali

    svenghali Silver Member

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    Yeah, it's pretty cute. SWIM goes to a boarding school, and that's the recreation of choice hereabouts.
     
  16. Stuck

    Stuck Silver Member

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    Took a while for swim to get around to it. He has been worn out the past few nights from taking AMP(pea) to stay awake during school.

    After discussing with his friend who happens to be a pediatrition, SWIM found out that the harmala alkaloids may only be a trace amount but there is still a possible risk.

    Swim took 3 pills 20 minutes ago and put in 2 skoal citrus pouches for the supposed MAOI effect.

    T+30: Strong body high. Heart rate is up. Slight euphoria.
    T+40: Effects seem worth it. SWIM doesn't think it is particularly dangerous.

    This does explain all the synergy tobacco products create.

    SWIM would also be interested in taking PEA with a very SMALL amount of selegiline(1mg or so). But he supposes that doesnt belong in this forum.
     
  17. Nagognog2

    Nagognog2 Newbie

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    Nope. The Feds will just impose a tax on Harmala alkaloids, Syrian Rue (that's Arabic - they'll outlaw it), bomb the Amazon, and impose fines for smoking outdoors.

    Can't forget the American Tobacco Lobby.
     
  18. Donmeka

    Donmeka Silver Member

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    true or not that made my night
     
  19. allyourbase

    allyourbase Palladium Member

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    how does this correalate with lowered blood plasma levels of benzodiazapines then? swim used to be a smoker. swim used to be a xanax addict (xanax being the benzo of choice). swim stopped smoking because swim noticed that swim couldnt stay high on the benzos for more than about 4 hours...upon looking it up benzopdiazapine users who use tobacco on average have far far lower drug concentrations in their plasma... anyone have any ideas on this?
     
  20. psyche

    psyche Palladium Member

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    I've heard of this, too, before. My understanding is that it isn't very effective MAOI, I don't think that really makes more difference than nicotine, which boosts dopamine levels(boost with alcohol, which along other things raises dopamine levels) and is alone quite a poison.

    I think phenethylamine can reach the brain, and it's one major compund that is in chocolate and related to it's pleasure. Along with that there's anandamine, an endocannabinoid, present, but in insignificant quantities. I've remember reading somewhere(convincing source, eh?) that 20kg of chocolate would contain enough anandamide to get you high, but that sounds like someone talking, who doesn't know much about the subject. Also, that would contain enough fats and whatnot to get you puke, most propably.

    In addition to things I mentioned, I think beta-carbolines can't be effectively smoked.

    Alcohol isn't metabolised by MAO, it isn't a monoamine. It is metabolised through alcohol dehydrogenase to acetaldehyde. But ofcourse MAOi:s would increase alcohol's effect since alcohol increases the dopamine levels, and less dopamine would be broke down. In addition combining these two is a good way to get to EM or killed.
     
    Last edited: May 18, 2007