Acetaldehyde: A colorless liquid produced by yeast in the fourth of five stages of enzymatic action culminating in the production of ethyl alcohol. The enzyme carboxylase forms acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide from pyruvic acid. At the next (final) stage, most of the acetaldehyde is reduced to ethyl alcohol, but a trace remains and adds to the flavor and complexity of the wine. If too much remains, it taints the wine with a strong off-taste. Acetic Acid: The organic acid that imparts the sour taste to vinegar, formed by the action of the bacteria acetobacter. Acetification: The formation of vinegar, usually caused contamination of the must, liquor or finished product with vinegar-producing bacteria (acetobacter) and the presence of air. Fermentation bottles should be filled as high as the froth or foam caused by fermentation will allow and the topped up as foam production subsides. Stored wine should have no more than one inch of air under the cork in the standing bottle (2/8 to 1/2 inch is preferred). Adding one Campden tablet per gallon may halt acetification in its early stages, when the wine emits a slight smell of vinegar and an acid taste. When the smell of vinegar is strong, however, it is probably too late to save the wine, but you might want to go ahead and make some wine vinegar instead. NEVER make wine in a wooden cask or barrel or plastic primary that has contained vinegar, even if acetification was successfully halted. Acetobacter: The pricipal bacteria responsible for converting alcohol into ace acid -- vinegar. Acid Blend: A blend of acids important to wines, usually tartaric, malic and citric acids. While there are many different formulations of acid blend, the recipes on this site calling for acid blend assume a blend of 50% tartaric, 30% malic and 20% citric. If your acid blend uses a different ratio, you may want to use slightly more or less depending on your blend. Acidity: The amount of acid in the must, liquor, or finished wine. Insufficient acidity in the must will result in a poor fermentation, a slightly medicinal and flat taste. Too much acid will give the wine an unpleasant tartness. Acid is necessary for fermentation, and up to one-fourth of the initial acid content will be consumed by the yeast during fermentation. Low-acid musts are usually corrected by adding tartaric acid, the principle acid in grapes, malic acid, citric acid, or acid blend. An acid testing kit is indispensable in measuring initial acidity. There are two measures of acidity used in winemaking; see pH and Titratable acidity. Activated Yeast: A hydrated, feeding, reproducing colony of yeast. The colony may have formerly been stored as active dry yeast (ADY), as a dense liquid colony under refrigeration, as dried yeast on grape skins and pulp, or in several other forms. See Yeast Starter. Active Dry Yeast: A dehydrated yeast culture that is the most convenient form of yeast for home winemakers to work with. Active dry yeast (ADY) cultures are prepared by extruding 70% moisture compressed yeast through a perforated plate into a spaghetti-like form, about the diameter of a 0.036 inch pencil lead, into a drier with a screen bottom that has a upward flow of air that keeps the particles of yeast suspended in a fluid-like bed. The incoming air is controlled for volume, temperature and relative humidity. The dryigfom the original 70% moisture down to 4-7% occurs in less than 30 minutes. There are typically over 150 billiob cells in a 5-gram sachet of ADY. The ADY should be rehydrated in a starter solution (see Yeast Starter) before "pitching," both to ensure the culture is still good and to get a vigorous start. ADY See Active Dry Yeast. Aerobic Fermentation: A fermentation conducted in the presence of fresh air, as in a crock, vat or polyethylene pail. Aerobic conditions are necessary for yeast to rapidly reproduce to a density conducive to the fast production of alcohol. Aging: The process by which wine matures, in bulk or in bottles or both, to achieve smoothness (in acidity), mellowness (in tannins and other phenols) and unique character and complexity. The major activities in this process are the chemical reduction of certain compounds into others, primarily by hydrolysis or oxidation, and the joining together of short molecular chains into longer ones. Volatile esters, ethers and acids create bouquet, which is not the same as aroma. Air Lock: A glass or plastic device designed to use water as an insulator to protect the fermentation media from contamination and exposure to fresh air, while at the same time allowing carbon dioxide produced by the yeast to escape the fermentation vessel. Also called a fermentation trap, bubbler or airlock. Alcohol: Shorthand term for ethyl alcohol or ethanol, a product of yeast fermentation. The volumetric amount of alcohol in wine is usually between 9 and 14%. Beverages with less than 9% abv (alcohol by volume) are vulnerable to spoilage bacteria and require refrigeration for preservation. Beverages with more than 14% abv may technically be wine, but have other names such as Madiera, Sherry, Port, or are typed as Aperitif or Dessert Wines. Alchol by Volume: The amount of alcohol in a volume of wine, expressed as a percentile. Ameliorate: Technically, to add any substance to the must or new wine intended to enhance its quality, such as sugar, water, sweet reserve, or acid. However, there is another term specific to adding sugar (see Chaptalize), so ameliorate usually refers to adding water to a fruit or wild grape must. Amylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes starch to produce dextrins, maltose, and glucose. Anaerobic Fermentation: A fermentation conducted in the absence of fresh air, as in a fermentation bottle, jug or carboy fitted with a fermentation trap. Aperitif: A type of wine, usually 14% or more abv, to which a blend of herbs or spices have been added and which is served before a meal to stimulate the appetite. The best known aperitif is vermouth. Aroma: The natural fragrance of a wine that originates from the fermented fruit upon which the wine is based. Aroma should not be confused with bouquet, which is created during aging. Astringency: A taste quality noted for constricting or contracting the inner mouth, as an unripe persimmon would, but caused in wine primarily by tannins absorbed from the skins and seeds of the base fruit from which the wine was made. Astringency mellows with bottle aging. Balance: The pleasurable proportional correctness of a wine's many aromatic and taste components, but especially sugar, alcohol, acidity, and tannin. Balling: One of several hydrometer or saccharometer scales denoting the density of liquid (must, juice or new wine) in terms of specific gravity. Both the Balling and Brix scales are identical and are ususally used to finely estimate sugar content. Barbados Sugar: A British specialty brown sugar, very dark brown, with a paticlary strong molasses flavor. The crystals are slightly coarser and stickier in texture than "regular" brown sugar. Also know as Muscovado Sugar. Base: The significant fermentable ingredients from which wine is made and its flavor or aroma derived. Apple wine, for example, is made from a crushed apple base. The base is also known as the fermentation media. B-Brite: A powerful sterilizing compound excellent for equipment, but should never be added to the must. One tablespoon to 1 gallon of water provides sufficient potency. Unlike potassium metabisulfite and sodium metabisulfite, B-Brite in solution may not be stored for future use, but must be made afresh each time it is needed. Bentonite: A very fine clay used as a fining or clarifying agent. Bloom: A dusty coating on grapes and most other fruit, composed of dust, wild yeast, bacteria, and fungal spores. Oftens, but not always, a waxy substance on grape, plum, cherry, and apple skins containing the same substances. Blow-off Tube: A venting tube exiting a bung and either fitted with a valve or seated in a sulfite solution. When a demijohn or carboy is used as a primary fermentation vessel, the blow-off tube allows foam formed during the initial, violent period of fermentation to escape without disturbing the integrity of the airlock. Body: The real or perceived consistency or density of a wine derived from several components of wine -- primarily alcohol and glycerin in combination, both of which are products of fermentation by yeast.. Real body refers to a wine that truly is thicker in density as a liquid, while perceived body is a wine's feel in the mouth whether truly denser or not. A full-bodied wine, such as Burgundy, is more easily sipped and may be referred to as "chewy," while a ligh-bodied wine such as Bordauxs easly swallowed. A thin or "watery" wine lacks body altogether. Bottle: The most common wine bottle size worldwide is 750 ml, but it is not standard. Some German wine bottles are a liter, some are 700 ml, while some from Alsace are 720 ml. Every wine bottle consists of a mouth, neck, ogive or shoulder, body, and bottom. The bottom may contain an indention, the term for which is a punt. Some almost standard names for different size wine bottles are: Split (Sparkling): 187 ml Half-Bottle: 375 ml Bottle: 750 ml Magnum: 1.5 litres Tregnum: 2.25 litres Double-Magnum: 3 litres (Bordeaux shaped) Jeroboam (Sparkling): 3 litres (Burgundy shaped) Jeroboam (Still): 4.5 to 5 litres (Bordeaux shaped) Rehoboam: 4.5 litres Imperial (Still): 6 litres (Bordeaux shaped) Methusalah (Sparkling): 6 litres (Burgundy shaped) Salmanazar: 9 litres (Bordeaux shaped) Balthazar (Sparkling): 12 litres (Burgundy shaped) Nebuchadnezzar (Sparkling): 15 litres (Burgundy shaped) Soverign: 50 litres Bottle Aging: The aging of wine in the bottles it will be distributed in rather than in vats, barrels, casks, demijohns, carboys, or gallon jugs. Bottle aging preserves the bouquet, which can be lost when the wine is bulk aged and then transferred to bottles. However, a bulk-aged wine can be bottled and subsequently develop a bottle bouquet. Bottle Bouquet: A wine's bouquet, captured in the bottle the wine is aged and distributed in. Bottle Sickness: A period following bottling during which the wine is flat, uninspiring and possibly unpalatable. This is a temporary condition which usually lasts no longer than a month and rarely two. Bouquet: The complex, vaporous scent(s) released when a bottle is uncorked, derived from volatile esters, ethers and acids formed during aging. Bouquet may rapidl disspate o be slowly released, but when gone the wine is left with aroma, the fragrance of the fruit the wine was made from. Brilliant: A descriptor denoting absolute, crystalline clarity in a wine. Brix: One of several hydrometer or saccharometer scales denoting the density of liquid (must, juice or new wine) in terms of specific gravity. Both the Brix and Balling scales are identical and are ususally used to finely estimate sugar content. Brown Sugar: Sugar crystals coated in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color. Many sugar refiners produce borwn sugar by boiling a special molasses syrup until brown sugar crystals form. A centrifuge spins the crystals dry. Some of the syrup remains, giving the sugar its brown color and molasses flavor. Other manufacturers produce brown sugar by blending a special molasses syrup with white sugar crystals. Dark brown sugar has more color and a stronger molasses flavor than light brown sugar. Lighter brown sugars are more commonly used in winemaking than darker ones, as the richer molasses flavors in the darker sugar tend to mask the bases flavors of the wine, but both have their place. Bubbler: A glass or plastic device designed to use water as an insulator to protect the fermentation media from contamination and exposure to fresh air, while at the same time allowing carbon dioxide produced by the yeast to escape the fermentation vessel. Also called an air lock, fermentation trap or airlock. Bulk Aging: The aging of wines in vats, barrels, casks, demijohns, carboys, or gallon jugs prior to bottling. An advantage of bulk aging is that the wine ages evenly and sediments developed during aging can be left behind when the wine is bottled. Bung: In cooperage, a wooden stopper used to seal the cask, keg or barrel. In glassware, usually a rubber stopper used to seal a demijohn, carboy or jug. Bugs maybe eithr solid or drilled with a central hole to accept a fermentation lock (airlock). Some bungs have two holes drilled to accept two airlocks, or one airlock and a blow-off tube. Campden Tablets: Tablets used in winemaking to sanitize equipment and fermentation media. When dissolved, they provide sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a convenient form. Tablets must be crushed to use, but this ensures the proper dosage and assists in their dissolution. The active ingredient in Campden tablets can be purchased bulk from most winemaker suppliers under its chemical name, potassium metabisulfite. For sanitizing bottles, primaries, secondaries, funnels and other equipment, two crushed tablets dissolved in 1 gallon of water will suffice. Do not rinse equipment after sanitizing. For adding to must, use one crushed tablet per gallon of must and wait 12 hours before adding yeast. Also see Potassium Metabisulfite and Sodium Metabisulfite. Cap: The layer of fruit pulp, skins, and possibly seeds that forms on top of the must during fermentation in the primary fermentation vessel. The cap forms when carbon dioxide emitted by the yeast rises to the surface, carrying solid material with it. The steady rise of CO2 keeps the solids at the surface where they form a "cap." The surface of the cap should not be allowed to dry out, as it is a pefect medium for mold growth. One should "punch down the cap" at least daily, but preferrably twice a day. This keeps the cap moist and, by submerging it briefly, coats it with sulfite-bearing wine that kills mold spores (assuming, that is, that the must was treated with Campden tablets or potassium metabisulfite initially). Capsule: A decorative foil, plastic, or mylar sleeve placed over the cork and neck of a wine bottle. Carbon Dioxide: The coorless, ordorless gas emitted by yeast during fermentation. The purpose of an air lock is to allow the carbon dioxide to escape without allowing oxygen into the fermentation vessel. The chemical shorthand is CO2. Carboy: A large glass or plastic bottle of 2-1/2 gallon capacity or more, with or without handles, and sometimes fitted with a spigot or plastic tubing at the bottom for drainage. Chaptalize: To add sugar to a must to increase its alcohol potential, or to a new wine to balance the taste of its alcohol or bite of its acidity or tannin. Citric Acid: A colorless acid found in all citrus fruit, pineapples, and in lesser amounts in several other fruit. Clarify: The process of a wine becoming clear, which occurs when all of the yeast and microscopic bits of pulp from the base ingredients of the wine settle to the bottom of the secondary, leaving a clear wine without haze. A wine that has clarified to the nth degree and is crystal clear is called brilliant. CO2: See Carbon Dioxide. Crock: A large-mouthed, cylindrical, earthenware vessel, glazed to contain liquid. The best sizes for winemaking are 1-1/2 gallon, 3 gallons, and 6 gallons; these adequately handle the ingredients for any 1 gallon-, 2 gallon-, or 5 gallon-batch recipe. Cyser: See Mead DAP: See Diammonium Phosphate. Decant: To pour clear wine gently from a bottle into a serving container (decanter or carafe) so as not to disturb its bottle sediments and thereby leave them behind. Also, to allow a wine to "breathe" before serving. Demerara Sugar: A light brown sugar with large golden crystals which are slightly sticky. While this sugar is often expensive, it has a unique, unmatched flavor. Demi-Doux: Th French trm denoting "semi-sweet" and indicating a wine as neither dry nor sweet, but closer to sweet than dry. Although usually reserved for sparkling wines, it is gaining frequent use describing still wines. A wine is usually perceived as demi-doux when its specific gravity is in the range of 1.004 to 1.007. Demijohn: A large-bodied, small-mouthed, long-necked wine bottle, usually covered with wicker, used to store wine or as a secondary fermentation vessel. Demi-Sec: The French term denoting "semi-dry" and indicating a wine as neither dry nor sweet, but closer to dry than sweet. Although usually reserved for sparkling wines, it is gaining frequent use describing still wines. A wine is usually perceived as demi-sec when its specific gravity is in the range of 1.000 to 1.003. Dessert Wine: A still wine type that is both sweet and high in alcohol and usually served after a meal or with a dessert. Dessert wines typically have 17% to 22% abv. Port and Sherry are the two best known dessert wines. Diammonium Phosphate: One of the major ingredients in almost all yeast nutrients and energizers, serving as their basic source of nitrogen. Also known as DAP. Dinner Wine: A still wine, usually light to medium in body, dry to semi-dry, low to moderate in alcohol (10% to 13% by volume), and often served with meals. Also called table wine. Doux: The French word for "sweet," which in wine is usually perceived when residual sugar is at or above a specific gravity of 1.008. Dry: A wine lacking or deficient in residual sugar. A wine becomes dry when all or most of the sugar within it has been converted through fermentation into alcohol and carbon dioxide. A wine is usually perceived as dry when residual sugar is at or below a specific gravity of 0.999. Dry Mead: See Mead Energizer: See Yeast Energizer. Enology: The science and study of winemaking, also spelled oenology. Enzyme: Any of numerous protein molecules produced by living organisms (including yeast) and functioning as catalysts in biochemical reactions. Despite their derivation from living materials, are not living organisms themselves. Enzymes emerge intact from the catalytic reactions they produce and are denatured (rendered inactive) by pH extremes and high temperatures. Usually, an enzyme acts only on a specific molecule (substrate), so an enzyme that acts upon pectin will not act upon starch. In winemaking, most of the essential enzymes are produced by yeast, but some are not and must be introduced by the winemaker. Some of the more important enzymes that find use in winemaking are: Amylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into maltose and dextrin. Cellulase: Any of several enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose. Invertase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into an equal mixture of glucose and fructose. Lactase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose. ,i>Lipase: Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. Maltase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis maltose to glucose. Pectinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of pectin to pectic acid and methanol. Essential Oils: Volatile oils that impart distinctive odors or flavors which, in wine, combine with alcohol and contribute to its bouquet. Esters: Volatile, aromatic, organic compounds formed by the chemical interaction of the wine's alcohol, acids and other components during maturation. Estufa: An "oven" or heating chamber used in the estufaem prcess for maing Madeira or Sherry. Estufagem: A winemaking process peculiar to the making of Madeira and sometimes used in the making of Sherry. This process consists of heating the otherwise finished wine in an "oven" (estufa) for a prolonged period. This can range from 90-100 degrees F. for a year to 140 degrees F. for 3 months, with the lower temperatures yielding a better wine. The wine is then racked into wood and aged for 1-3 years. Ethanol: An alcohol, C2H5OH, produced by distillation or as the principal alcohol in an alcohol fermentation by yeast. Also know as Ethyl Alcohol. Ethyl Alcohol: See Ethanol. Fermentation: The process of yeast acting upon sugar to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation Bottle: Sometimes called the secondary fermentation vessel, a fermentation bottle is a shouldered, small-mouthed glass jug or carboy in which the liquor is placed to complete fermentation under a fermentation trap. Fermentation Media: The pulp or other solid material from which wine will be made. Fermentation media differs from must in that the must is the media, the water, the yeast, and all other ingredients mixed together, while the fermentation media more narrowly refers to the crushed grapes, chopped raisins, pulped peaches, cracked wheat, or other material used either for flavoring, natural sugar content, or both. It is also called the base ingredient or wine base. Fermentation Trap: A glass or plastic device designed to use water as an insulator to protect the fermentation media from contamination and exposure to fresh air, while at the same time allowing carbon dioxide produced by the yeast to escape the fermentation vessel. Also called an air lock, bubbler or airlock. Fining: Removinguspended solis from a cloudy wine by temperature adjustment, blending with an already cleared wine of the same variety, filtering, or adding a fining material such as egg white, milk, gelatine, casein, or bentonite. Flocculation: The process of settling or compacting of lees or sediment. Lightly or loosely flocculated lees are less dense than tightly or compactly flocculated ones. Good flocculation refers to greater density. Fortification: The process of adding distilled spirits to a finished wine to increase its alcohol content, improve its preservation qualities, or improve its flavor. Brandy is often used as a fortifying agent because it is made from wine, but vodka, gin, Everclear, or any distilled spirit may be used. Each fortifying agent has its own flavor and will impart this to the fortified wine. Grain-Bag: A long bag of finely woven net-like material (mesh) used for suspending grain or other fermentation media in liquid during fermentation to ease the removal of the solids later. Grain-bags come in various mesh and sizes and can be used in lieu of a jelly-bag for straining the solid fermentaion media from the wine. Gross Lees: Loose sediments containing a large quantity of fine pulp from the fruit or other base materials from which the wine is made. The pulp does not compact well on its own and therefore is loosely suspended in wine. Gross lees can be compacted somewhat by adding gelatin to the wine, or they can be coarsely filtered or centrifuged to recover much of the wine trapped within them. Hippocras: See Mead Hydrometer: An instrument for measuring the specific gravity (abbreviated as s.g.), relative to sugar content, of a liquid. The importance of s.g. rests in it's indication of proofing potential. In other words, s.g. indicates how much dissolved sugar is present for conversion to alcohol by yast, what tat proof wille, and how much sugar to add to raise the finished proof to a specific level. A hydrometer which indicates the proof of the present alcoholic content is called a "proofing hydrometer." Hydrometer Chimney: A tall, narrow, cylindrical vessel used to float a hydrometer in the liquid to be measured. Using this vessel requires a smaller liquid sample than using, for example, a one gallon open-mouthed jar, as hydrometers tend to be rather long and must be floated in a deep vessel. Inoculate: To add an active, selected culture of yeast or malo-lactic bacteria to a must, juice or unfinished wine. Invert Sugar: The product of the hydrolysis of sucrose, which is glucose and fructose. Yeast convert invert sugar more rapidly than glucose, such as simple cane sugar, because they do not have to break the glucose down into sucrose and fructose themselves. Invert sugar can be made by mixing two parts sugar to one part water, adding two teaspoons lemon juice per pound of sugar. This is brought almost to a boil and held there for 30 minutes (do NOT allow to boil). If not to be used immediately upon cooling, this is poured into a sealable jar, sealed and cooled in the refrigerator. Invert sugar should NOT be used to sweeten finished wine as it will encourage refermentation. Invertase: The enzyme yeast use to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose to yield an equal mixture of glucose and fructose, yielding invert sugar. Jar: A cylindrical glass or earthenware container with a large mouth and capable of holding liquids, usually without handles. Jelly-Bag: A bag used to strain the solid fermentation media from the wine. They are similar to grain-bags, but shorter and usually fitted with a draw-string so they can be closed and hung while the liquid drips from the pulp. Lactase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrlysis of lacose into glucos and galactose. Lees: Deposits of yeast and other solids formed during fermentaion. Lipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides to yield glycerol and fatty acids. Liquor: While I don't particularly like this term, associating it as I do with Scotch and other distilled spirits, it does, in fact, also properly refer to the unfermented or imcompletely fermented, sugar-bearing liquid from which wine is made. It is also the liquid portion of a must. When the alcohol in the liquor reaches 8 or 9%, it can more accurately be referred to as wine. Malic Acid: A naturally occurring acid found in apples, cherries, grapes grown in less sunny regions, and certain other fruit. It is the presence of malic acid, along with Bacillus gracile, which sometimes produces malo-lactic fermentation. Malo-Lactic Fermentation: A fermentation which might occur after the wine has been bottled and set to age for a year or more, whereby the bacterium Bacillus gracile converts malic acid into lactic acid. Lactic acid is much less acid than malic acid, which improves the wine, but the wine also is endowed with a cleaner, fresher taste. Maltase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis maltose to glucose. Maturation: The process of aging in bulk or in bottles or both, to achieve smoothness (in acidity), mellowness (in tannins and other phenols) and unique character and complexity. The major activities in this process are the chemical reduction of certain compounds into others, primarily by hydrolysis or oxidation, and the joining together of short molecular chains into longer ones. Volatile esters, ethers and acids create bouquet, which is not the same as aroma. Mead: A fermented beverage made from honey, water, acid, yeast nutrients, and yeast. Tanninay also be addd, but the onlylavor is derived from the honey itself. Different honeys, meaning honeys made from different nectar sources (flowers), yield different flavors. Thus, a clover mead is made with honey produced primarily from the nectar of clover flowers, while a heather mead is made with honey produced primarily from the nectar of heather flowers. There are three kinds of "true" mead: Dry Mead contain no flavoring other than honey and is made using about 2-1/2 pounds of honey per U.S. gallon of mead. Sack Mead contains no flavoring other than honey but is sweeter than most other meads and is made using about 4 pounds of honey per U.S. gallon of mead. Small Mead contains no flavoring other than honey but is made using only about 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 pounds of honey per U.S. gallon of mead and is fermented using an ale yeast. A small mead is closer to ale than to wine, while both dry and sack meads are closer to wine. Additionally, there are other beverages made with honey that are generally referred to as meads but indeed have their own names. Just a few of these (there are scores of them) are: Cyser is a sack mead (actually, a Melomel) made with honey and apples and is closely related to hard cider. Hippocras is a spiced pyment . Melomel is a mead made with honey and fruit. Another name for this type of mead is Mulsum. Metheglin is a sack mead made with honey and herbs and/or spices. Morat is a sack mead (actually, a Melomel) made with honey and mulberries. Mulsum is another name for Melomel. Perry is a sack mead (actually, a Melomel) made with honey and pears. Pyment is a mead (actually, a Melomel) made with honey and grapes or grape juice. Rhodamel is a mead (actually, a Metheglin) ul petals rose and hony with made Melomel: See Mead Metabisulfite: See Campden Tablets, Potassium Metabisulfite or Sodium Metabisulfite. Metheglin: See Mead Mincer: A powered or manual device for chopping fruit, grain vegetables, or meats into very small pieces. The size of the pieces can usually be regulated by changing chopping blades. This device is very useful for chopping large quanties of fruit, especially dried fruit and raisins. Morat: See Mead Mulsum: See Mead Muscovado Sugar: A British specialty brown sugar, very dark brown, with a particularly strong molasses flavor. The crystals are slightly coarser and stickier in texture than "regular" brown sugar. Also know as Barbados Sugar. Must: The combination of basic ingredients, both solid and liquid, from which wine is made. The liquid content of must is called liquor or simply juice, while the solids, when pushed to the surface by rising carbon dioxide, is called the cap. When the alcohol content reaches 8 or 9%, the liquid component is more accurately referred to as wine. Nose: The smell of a wine, combining both its aroma and bouquet, thereby revealing the character of the base from which it was made and the character of its maturation. Nutrient: Food for the yeast, containing nitrogenous matter, yeast-tolerant acid, vitimins, and certain minerals. While sugar is the main food of the yeast, nutrients are the "growth hormones," so to speak. Pectic Enzyme: The enzymes such as pectinase that hydrolyze the large pectin molecules. Pectin: A heavy, colloidal substance found in most ripe fruit which promotes the formation of gelatinous solutions and hazes in the fnished wine. Fermenting fruitpulps with high pectin content, such as apples, should be treated with pectic enzyme, especially if the pulp is boiled to extract the fruit flavor (boiling releases the pectin, while pectic enzymes destroy it). Pectinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of pectin molecules. Perry: See Mead pH: A chemical shorthand for [p]otential of ydrogen, used to express relative acidity or alkalinity in solution, in terms of strength rather than amount, on a logarithmic scale. A pH of 7 is neutral; above 7 is increasing alkalinity and below 7 is increasing acidity. Thus, a pH of 3 is 10 times more acidic than a ph of 4. See Acidity. Pomace: The residue of pressed pulp, skins and pips of apples, grapes or any fruit after pressing. When pressed under great pressure, a pomace cake or brick results. Pomace from appropriate fruit can be ameliorated with sugar, acid, water, and yeast nutrients (possibly acid and tannin will also be required) and a second wine can be made. The pomace provides enough flavor for a reduced volume of wine and should contain enough viable yeast (assuming the pulp was pressed after an initial period of fermentation) to continue fermentation. Potassium Metabisulfite: One of two compounds which may be used to sanitize winemaking equipment and utensiles (the other being sodium metabisulfite). Potassium metabisulfite is the active ingredient in Campden tablets. Its action, in water, inhibits harmful bacteria through the release of sulfur dioxide, a powerful antiseptic. It can be used for sanitizing equipment and the must from which wine is to be made. For equipment, a 1% solution (10 grams disolved in 1 liter of water) is sufficient for washing and rinsing. After using the solution, the equipment should not again be rinsed. For sanitizing the must, a 10% soluton is made (10 grams dissolvedn 1 liter of water). Three milliliters of this 10% solution added to a U.S. gallon of must will add approximately 45 ppm of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the must. One should wait at least 12 hours after sanitizing the must before adding the yeast. Both bottles of solution (1% and 10%) should be clearly labled as to strength and active compound to prevent disasterous mistakes, and both may be stored in a cool place for up to one year without effecting potency. Also see Campden Tablet and Sodium Metabisulfite. Potassium Sorbate: Also known as "Sorbistat K" and affectionately as "wine stabilizer," potassium sorbate produces sorbic acid when added to wine. It serves two purposes. When active fermentation has ceased and the wine racked the final time after clearing, 1/2 tsp. added to 1 gallon of wine will prevent future fermentation. When a wine is sweetened before bottling potassium sorbate is used to prevent refermentation. It should always be used in conjunction with potassium metabisulfite. It is primarily used with sweet wines and sparlking wines, but may be added to table wines which exhibit difficulty in maintaining clarity after fining. Also see Sodium Benzoate and Wine Stabilizer. Press: To use pressure to force juice out of fruit pulp, or a device used to achieve this result. Primary: A crock, bowl, bucket, pail, or other non-reactive, food-safe vessel in which the initial, or primary fermentation takes place. Also known as the primary fermentation vessel. Primary Fermentation: An initial alcohol fermentation by yeast. It is usually begun by adding an active yeast starter to a must or juice in a covered primary fermentation vessel. After a period of vigorous fermentation, the must is pressed or strained and/or the juice is transferred to a secondary frmentation vesel (e.g.a carboy or demijohn) and covered by an airlock. Even though the wine is now in a secondary fermentation vessel, the alcohol fermentation taking place is a continuation of the primary fermentation. See Secondary Fermentation for contrast. Primary Fermentation Vessel: A crock, bowl, bucket, pail, or other non-reactive, food-safe vessel in which the initial, or primary fermentation takes place. Also known as the primary. Proof: A numeric notation representing the alcoholic content of the spirit. Two degrees proof equals one percent alcohol, so a "36 proof" wine contains 18 percent alcohol. Strictly speaking, "true" proof spirit contains 57.1% alcohol at 60 degrees fahrenheit, the amount of alcohol required, when combined with water, to allow combustion. Pyment: See Mead Racking: The process of siphoning the wine off the lees to stabilize it and allow clarification. Recover: Literally, to "cover again." When instructions say to "recover starter," to "stir and recover," or to "recover primary," they mean to cover the yeast starter or the primary fermentation vessel in the manner previously prescribed. For example, in Yeast Starter (below) it says, "Cover the jar with a paper towel or napkin held in place with a rubber band." Later in the instructions it says, "...add another 1/4 cup of juice from the must and recover." This means to cover the jar again with a paper towel or napkin held in place with a rubber band. Rhodamel: See Mead Residual Sugar: The amount of sugar, both fermentable and unfermentable, left in a wine after fermentation is complete or permanently halted by stabilization. Fermentation is complete when either all the fermentable sugar has been converted by the yeast into alcohol and carbon dioxide as byproducts orwhen the concenration of alcohol prduced reaches a level that is toxic to the yeast and they die. Fermentation is permanently halted by stabilization through several means involving intervention by man. Sachet: A paper, foil, mylar, or plastic packet of dehydrated, freeze-dried, dried, or active dried yeast. A sachet typically holds 5 grams of product, although 35- to 100-gram sachets of some products are available. Sack Mead: See Mead Second Wine: A wine made from the pomace or strained pulp obtained from making a first wine. A second wine will require that the pomace or pulp be ameliorated with water, sugar, yeast nutrients, and possibly acid and tannin, but usually not pectic enzyme. Sulfites, however, should be introduced at once to achieve and unbound sulfur level of 45-55 ppm. A second wine cannot usually be made in the same volume as the original wine from which the pomace or pulp was obtained, but a volume of 1/3 to 2/3 the original is usuallly attained. Secondary: A jug, jar, bottle, demi-john, or carboy in which the second or secondary fermentation takes place. This vessel typically has a wide body and tapered neck leading up to a small opening which can be sealed with an air lock. Also known as the secondary fermentation vessel. Secondary Fermentation: A second alcohol fermentation by yeast performed in a champagne bottle secured with a special, hollow closure secured with a wire "cage," the purpose of which is to trap the carbon dioxide produced by the fermentation and force it to be absorbed into the wine. The result is a Sparkling Wine. This secondary fermentation can actually be a continuation of the fermentation by the original yeast inoculation or can be induced at bottling time by inoculating a sweetened still wine with a second yeast especially adept at fermenting uner pressure. Itis NOT correct to refr to a fermentation in a secondary fermentation vessel (e.g. a carboy) as a secondary fermentation. See Primary Fermentation for contrast. Secondary Fermentation Vessel: A jug, jar, bottle, demi-john, or carboy in which the second or secondary fermentation takes place. This vessel typically has a wide body and tapered neck leading up to a small opening which can be sealed with an air lock. Also known as the secondary. Semi-Dry: The term denoting a wine as neither dry nor sweet, but closer to dry than sweet. Although usually reserved for sparkling wines, it is gaining frequent use describing still wines. A wine is usually perceived as semi-dry when its specific gravity is in the range of 1.000 to 1.003. Semi-Sweet: The term denoting a wine as neither dry nor sweet, but closer to sweet than dry. Although usually reserved for sparkling wines, it is gaining frequent use describing still wines. A wine is usually perceived as semi-sweet when its specific gravity is in the range of 1.004 to 1.007. Small Mead: See Mead Sodium Benzoate: Sold as "Stabilizing Tablets," sodium benzoate is used, one crushed tablet per gallon of wine, to stop future fermentation. It is used when active fermentation has ceased and the wine racked the final time after clearing. It is generally used with sweet wines and sparlking wines, but may be added to table wines which exhibit difficulty in maintaining clarity after fining. For sweet wines, the final sugar syrup and crushed tablet may be added at the same time. Also see Potassium Sorbate and Wine Stabilizer. Sodium Metabisulfite: One of two compounds commonly used to sanitize winemaking equipment and utensiles, the other being potassium metabisulfite. Its action, in water, inhibits harmful bacteria through therelease of sulfurdioxide, a powerful aniseptic. It can be used for sanitizing equipment, but the U.S. government prohibits its inclusion in commercial wine and thus should not be used to sanitize the must from which wine is to be made. It is about 17.5% stronger than potassium metabisulfite and shoul be mixed accordingly. Sorbate: See Potassium Sorbate. Sparkling Wine: Any wine that has been allowed to complete the final phase of its fermentation in the bottle so that the carbon dioxide produced is trapped within. A carbonated wine, on the other hand, is a still wine that has been artifically carbonated by infusing carbon dioxide into the wine before or during the bottling process. See Still Wine for contrast. Specific Gravity: A measure of the density or mass of a solution, such as must or wine, as a ratio to an equal volume of a standardized substance, such as distilled water. Before fermentation, the density of the must or juice is high because sugar is dissolved in it, making it thicker than plain water. As the sugar is converted by the yeast into alcohol and carbon dioxide, the density (specific gravity) drops. A hydrometer measures specific gravity (s.g. for short), with an s.g. of 1.000 being the calibrated density of distilled water at a specific temperature (usually 59 or 60 degrees F.). Because alcohol is actually less dense than water, the finial s.g. of a wine can be less than 1.000, or lighter than water. See Hydrometer. Spirits: Beverages with high alcohol content obtained through distillation. Examples are brandy, gin, rum, vodka, and whiskey. Stable: A state attained by wine when all fermentation has ceased at 60 degrees fahrenheit. See Wine Stabilizer, Potassium Sorbate, and Sodium Benzoate. Stabilization: The process of rendering a wine stable, either naturaly or through intevention. See Stable. Starter Solution: A solution of water, juice, sugar, and nutrients into which a culture of yeast is introduced and encouraged to multiply as quickly as possible before adding to a must. The purpose of the starter solution is to achieve a greater density of yeast than contained in the original culture sample so that the cultured yeast will dominate the fermentation process, literally smothering out any wild yeast that might be present. It is also used to restart a Stuck Fermentation. See Yeast Starter for a method of creating a starter solution. Still Wine: A finished, non-sparkling wine. A finished wine containing no noticeable carbonation. See Sparkling Wine for contrast. Stuck Fermentation: A fermentation that has started but then stops before converting all fermentable sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide or before reaching the toxicity level of the particular yeast strain(s) involved. A stuck fermentation is usually due to an imbalance in the ingredients or to temperature extremes unacceptable to the yeast. Sweet Reserve A sample of the original juice from which a wine is made, used to sweeten the finished wine after fermenting to dryness and stabilized. The sweet reserve is either refrigerated or frozen until needed. When making a sweet reserve from whole fruit, such as strawberries, peaches, or plums, the fruit must be crushed and pressed and the juice stood in a tall, clear, glass bottle in a refrigerator until the juice separates (i.e. pulp sediment settles to the bottom of the bottle). The clear juice is very carefully racked off the sediment and stored for the reserve. The sediment can be lightly pressed through a double layer of sanitized muslin cloth and the liquid obtained allowed to separate out again, with the clear juice again removed and stored with the sweet reserve. The avantage of using aweet reserve to sweeten astabilized dry wine is the it adds sweetness, fresh flavor, and natural aroma to the wine. It may also improve the color of the finished wine somewhat. Table Wine: A still wine, usually light to medium in body, dry to semi-dry, low to moderate in alcohol (10% to 13% by volume), and often served with meals. Also called dinner wine. Tannin: Tannic acid, essential for good aging qualities and balance, gives most wines their "zest" or "bite." Tannin is found naturally in the stems, skins and pips (seeds) of most red and dark fruit such as grapes, elderberries, sloes, apples, and plums, but also in pear skins, oak leaves, and dark tea leaves. Most grains, roots and flowers used in winemaking lack any or sufficient tannin, so must be supplemented with grape tannin or tannin from another source. Wines containing too much tannin can be ameliorated by adding a little sugar or glycerine, fined with gelatine, or blended with another, softer wine. Tartaric Acid: A reddish acid found in grapes and several other fruit. Top Up: To add liquid (finished wine of the same type, grape juice, sweetened water, or plain water) to a wine after racking it to replace any volume lost in the sediments left behind. One can also top up by adding sanitized marbles or glass pebbles to the carboy, thereby displacing the lost volume. Turbinado Sugar: A raw sugar which has been partially processed, removing some of the surface molasses. It is a blond color with a mild brown sugar flavor that enhances some wine bases as no other sugar can. Ullage: The air space between the surface of the wine and the bottom of the bung, cork or other closure. In a cask or barrel, it is the volume of wine missing, which if present would result in a full container of wine. Vinegar: "Sour wine," caused by vinegar-producing bactera, most notably aetobacter. These bactria are principally airborne, but are also carried by the so-called vinegar fly. Wine Stabilizer: Potassium sorbate, also known as "Sorbistat K," which produces sorbic acid when added to wine. When active fermentation has ceased and the wine racked the final time after clearing, 1/2 tsp. added to 1 gallon of wine will prevent future fermentation. Sodium benzoate, sold as "Stabilizing Tablets," is a second type of fermentation inhibitor and is used by adding one crushed tablet to a gallon of wine. These are primarily used with sweet wines and sparlking wines, but may be added to table wines which exhibit difficulty in maintaining clarity after fining. For sweet wines, the final sugar syrup and stabilizer may be added at the same time. Also see Potassium Sorbate and Sodium Benzoate. Wine Yeast: Yeast cultured especially for winemaking, with such desirable attributes a as high alcohol tolerance, firmer sediment formation, and less flavor fluctuation. Wine yeasts are usually obtained from a winemaking/brewing specialty shop or by mail order. See entry for Yeast on starting a culture before adding to must. Yeast: A unicellular fungi, principally of the genus Saccharomyces, capable of fermenting carbohydrates. Before adding yeast to a liquor or must to initiate active fermentation, it should be "started." After mixing the primary ingredients, but before adding crushed Campden tablet or other sterilizing compound to the must, set aside one cup of the liquor or juice into which the yeast nutrient (or energizer) is dissolved. Add 1/2 to one tsp. yeast, stir gently, and allow to sit, covered with a clean towel or cloth, in a warm place. Allow the culture to "bloom" (grow) a total of 24 hours since adding Campden to the must. Then add this cup of yeast culture to the must, stir and coer, and allow the yeat to "do its thing." Yeast Energizer: An extraordinary nutrient, energizer is useful when making wines of high alcoholic content (over 14%) and to restart fermentation when the secondary fermentation seems "stuck." Yeast energizer contains many ingredients not found in normal nutrient, such as Riboflavin and Thiamine. The energizer is best used by dissolving 1/2 tsp. in 1/2 to 1 cup of the liquor before adding. If the fermentation is truly "stuck" and not simply run out, the energizer may be dissolved in 1/4 cup liquor and 1/2 cup warm (75 degrees F.) water and a pinch of fresh wine yeast added and allowed to bloom under cover over a 12-hour period. An additional 1/4 cup of liquor is then added and the yeast given another 12 hours to multiply before the enriched solution is adding to the fermentation bottle. Yeast Nutrient: Food for the yeast, containing nitrogenous matter, yeast-tolerant acid, vitimins, and certain minerals. While sugar is the main food of the yeast, nutrients are the "growth hormones," so to speak. Yeast Starter: A media in which a wine yeaster is activated and encouraged to multiply to a high density so that when added to a must it will have a better chance of populating it successfully. There are several ways to make a starter. To make a really vigorous starter for inoculating a must initially or restarting a stuck fermentation, in a quart jar dissolve 1 teaspoon of sugar and 1/8 teaspoon of yeast nutrient in 1 cup of warm water (less than 104° F.). To this, add 1/4 cup of the juice from the must to be fermented. Sprinkle 1 packet of active dry yeast on the surface of the liquid. Do not stir. Cover the jar with a paper towel or napkin held in place with a rubber band. Wait fot the yeast to become active. This could become obvious in as little as 15 minutes or could take as long as 2-4 hours. If no evidence of activation in 4 hours, the yeat was too old or deadrom exposure to temperature etremes (usually heat, but possibly extreme cold). In such a case, sprinkle another packet of yeast into same jar and recover. When yeast (first or second sachet) is evidently active, add another 1/4 cup of juice from the must and recover. Wait until vigorous activity returns (usually 30-90 minutes) and add another 1/4 cup of juice. When again vigorously active, add yet another 1/4 cup of juice. Wait 1-2 hours and gently pour half the liquid over the surface of the must. Do not stir. The idea is for the starter to remain on or close to the surface where there is plenty of air for the yeast to "breath." Cover the primary fermentation vessel with a sanitized cloth or sheet of plastic. After 2-4 hours, the surface of the must should have small bubbles rising from fermentation or a healthy layer of yeast culture. Stir shallowly and recover the primary. Wait another 2-4 hours and fermentation should be more vigorous. Add the remainder of the starter and stir deeply. Recover primary. If the starter does not produce a vigorous fermentation in the primary, add another 1/4 cup of juice to the reserved half of the starter media. Wait 2 hours and add yet another 1/4 cup of juice. This starter is now 2 parts juice and 1 part water. When this is fermenting vigorously, add half of it to the must as before and try again. Zest: While "zest" is a quality a good, fresh wine might possess, when mentioned as an ingredient in the recipes on this site, zest refers to the grated rind of lemon, orange, grapefruit, or lime. Only the colored portion of the rind is used, as the white pith is bitter and will spoil the batch. When a recipe calls for 2 lemons, both the zest and the extracted juice are intended unless otherwise stipulated.