Alkaloid

Definition

Any of a class of naturally occurring nitrogen-containing organic bases. Many alkaloids are pharmacologically active and/or poisonous.


Alkaloid classifications

* Pyridine group: piperine, coniine, trigonelline, arecoline, arecaidine, guvacine, cytisine, lobeline, nicotine, anabasine, sparteine, pelletierine.
* Pyrrolidine group: hygrine, cuscohygrine, nicotine
* Tropane group: atropine, cocaine, ecgonine, scopolamine, catuabine
* Quinoline group: quinine, quinidine, dihydroquinine, dihydroquinidine, strychnine, brucine, veratrine, cevadine
* Isoquinoline group: opium alkaloids (papaverine, narcotine, narceine), sanguinarine, hydrastine, berberine, emetine, berbamine, oxyacanthine
* Phenanthrene alkaloids: opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine)
* Phenethylamine group: mescaline, ephedrine, dopamine
* Indole group:
o Tryptamines: serotonin, DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenine, psilocybin
o Ergolines (the ergot alkaloids): ergine, ergotamine, lysergic acid
o Beta-carbolines: harmine, harmaline, tetrahydroharmine
o Yohimbans: reserpine, yohimbine
o Vinca alkaloids: vinblastine, vincristine
o Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) alkaloids: mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine
o Tabernanthe iboga alkaloids: ibogaine, voacangine, coronaridine
o Strychnos nux-vomica alkaloids: strychnine, brucine
* Purine group:
o Xanthines: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline
* Terpenoid group:
o Aconitum alkaloids: aconitine
o Steroid alkaloids (containing a steroid skeleton in a nitrogen containing structure):
+ Solanum (e.g. potato and tomato) alkaloids (solanidine, solanine, chaconine)
+ Veratrum alkaloids (veratramine, cyclopamine, cycloposine, jervine, muldamine)[2]
+ Fire Salamander alkaloids (samandarin)
+ Others: conessine
* Quaternary ammonium compounds: muscarine, choline, neurine
* Miscellaneous: capsaicin, cynarin, phytolaccine, phytolaccotoxin
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