Choline is an essential human nutrient used in the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is found in sizeable amounts in fish and eggs but may also be consumed as a supplement, especially when using drugs in the racetam class.

Introduction to Choline


Using Choline

Ways of Administration

Effects of Choline




Pharmacology of Choline

LD50 (mg/kg) (as the hydrochloride) [1]:
Mice : 6640 orally, 400 intraperitoneally

Chemistry of Choline

Column 1 Column 2
Systematic(IUPAC) name: 2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium
Synonyms: (ß-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium, bilineurin; bursine, fagine, gossypine, luridine, sincaline, vidine (hydroxide); chloine salicylic acid salt, salicylic acid choline salt, Actasal, Arthropan, Artrobione, Audax, Mundisal (salicylate); theophyline cholinate, oxtriphylline, oxytrimethyline, Choledyl, Sabidal (theophyllinate)
Molecular Formula: [C5H14NO]+, [C5H14NO]OH (hydroxide), [C5H14NO]Cl (chloride), [C5H14NO]C6H7O7 (citrate dihydrate), [C5H14NO]C4H5O6 (bitartrate), [C5H14NO]C7H5O3 (salicylate), [C5H14NO]C7H7N4O2 (theophyllinate)
Molar mass: 104.17 g/mol, 121.18 g/mol (hydroxide), 139.62 g/mol (chloride), 295.29 g/mol (dihydrogen citrate), 253.25 g/mol (bitartrate), 241.29 g/mol (salicylate), 283.73 g/mol (theophyllinate)
CAS Registry Number: 62-49-7, 123-41-1 (hydroxide), 67-48-1 (chloride), 77-91-8 (dihydrogen citrate), 87-67-2 (bitartrate), 2016-36-6 (salicylate), 4499-40-5 (theophyllinate)
Melting Point: 302°C (chloride), 105-107.5°C (dihydrogen citrate), 49.5-50°C (salicylate)
Boiling Point: no data
Flash Point: no data
Solubility: Hydroxide very soluble in water, alcohol; insoluble in ether. Chloride very soluble in water, alcohol. Dihydrogen citrate freely soluble in water; very slightly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in benzene, chloroform, ether. Bitartrate freely soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether, chloroform. Salicylate very freely soluble in water; soluble in alcohol, acetone, other hydrophilic solvents; practically insoluble in ether, petroleum ether, benzene, oils. Theophyllinate 1 g dissolves in 1 mL water; freely soluble in alcohol; very slightly soluble in alcohol
Additionnal data: Dihydrogen citrate pH (25% aqueous solution) 4.25. Salicylate pH (10% aqueous solution) 6.5
Notes: Hydroxide aspect : viscid, strongly alkaline liquid; absorbs CO2 from air; corrosive; keep tighly closed. Chloride aspect : colorless crystals or crystalline powder; hygroscopic; irritant; keep tighly closed. Dihydrogen citrate aspect : granules; acrid taste; irritant; keep tighly closed. Bitartrate aspect : white crystalline powder; hygroscopic; irritant; keep tighly closed. Salicylate extremely hygroscopic solid; aqueous solutions are discolored by minute traces of iron; additoin of acid to aqueous solutions precipitates salicylic acid, choline base is liberated upon the addition of alkali. Choline base has a fishy odor.

The Dangers of Choline

Legal Status of Choline

United Nations



Other Countries



[1]Merck Index, fifteenth edition (2013)
Categories: Nootropics

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