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Choline

Choline is an essential human nutrient used in the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is found in sizeable amounts in fish and eggs but may also be consumed as a supplement, especially when using drugs in the racetam class.

Introduction to Choline


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Using Choline

Ways of Administration

Effects of Choline

Positive

Neutral

Negative


Pharmacology of Choline


LD50 (mg/kg) (as the hydrochloride) [1]:
Mice : 6640 orally, 400 intraperitoneally

Chemistry of Choline


Column 1 Column 2
Systematic(IUPAC) name: 2-Hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium
Synonyms: (ß-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium, bilineurin; bursine, fagine, gossypine, luridine, sincaline, vidine (hydroxide); chloine salicylic acid salt, salicylic acid choline salt, Actasal, Arthropan, Artrobione, Audax, Mundisal (salicylate); theophyline cholinate, oxtriphylline, oxytrimethyline, Choledyl, Sabidal (theophyllinate)
Molecular Formula: [C5H14NO]+, [C5H14NO]OH (hydroxide), [C5H14NO]Cl (chloride), [C5H14NO]C6H7O7 (citrate dihydrate), [C5H14NO]C4H5O6 (bitartrate), [C5H14NO]C7H5O3 (salicylate), [C5H14NO]C7H7N4O2 (theophyllinate)
Molar mass: 104.17 g/mol, 121.18 g/mol (hydroxide), 139.62 g/mol (chloride), 295.29 g/mol (dihydrogen citrate), 253.25 g/mol (bitartrate), 241.29 g/mol (salicylate), 283.73 g/mol (theophyllinate)
CAS Registry Number: 62-49-7, 123-41-1 (hydroxide), 67-48-1 (chloride), 77-91-8 (dihydrogen citrate), 87-67-2 (bitartrate), 2016-36-6 (salicylate), 4499-40-5 (theophyllinate)
Melting Point: 302°C (chloride), 105-107.5°C (dihydrogen citrate), 49.5-50°C (salicylate)
Boiling Point: no data
Flash Point: no data
Solubility: Hydroxide very soluble in water, alcohol; insoluble in ether. Chloride very soluble in water, alcohol. Dihydrogen citrate freely soluble in water; very slightly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in benzene, chloroform, ether. Bitartrate freely soluble in water; slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether, chloroform. Salicylate very freely soluble in water; soluble in alcohol, acetone, other hydrophilic solvents; practically insoluble in ether, petroleum ether, benzene, oils. Theophyllinate 1 g dissolves in 1 mL water; freely soluble in alcohol; very slightly soluble in alcohol
Additionnal data: Dihydrogen citrate pH (25% aqueous solution) 4.25. Salicylate pH (10% aqueous solution) 6.5
Notes: Hydroxide aspect : viscid, strongly alkaline liquid; absorbs CO2 from air; corrosive; keep tighly closed. Chloride aspect : colorless crystals or crystalline powder; hygroscopic; irritant; keep tighly closed. Dihydrogen citrate aspect : granules; acrid taste; irritant; keep tighly closed. Bitartrate aspect : white crystalline powder; hygroscopic; irritant; keep tighly closed. Salicylate extremely hygroscopic solid; aqueous solutions are discolored by minute traces of iron; additoin of acid to aqueous solutions precipitates salicylic acid, choline base is liberated upon the addition of alkali. Choline base has a fishy odor.
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[2]

The Dangers of Choline


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References


[1]Merck Index, fifteenth edition (2013)
Categories: Nootropics

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