MDPV is a powerful stimulant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac and to some extent empathogen that functions as a dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). It was one of the original substances used in bath salts, and is known for its intense euphoria and relatively short duration. The combination of these two qualities leads some users to compulsively redose as its effects begin to fade, intensifying the drug's already formidable side effects. Abuse may lead to paranoia, psychosis, and cardiac problems with relative ease.

Introduction to MDPV

[​IMG]MDPV, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, is an alkaloid in the pyrrolidine and ketone chemical classes. Pharmacologically, it functions as a dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system. It was first synthesized by Boehringer Ingelheim and patented in 1969[1], but was never marketed. MDPV appeared as a recreational drug in 2005. It is usually classified as a research chemical. It is sometimes called 'PV', 'PeeVee' and somtimes "Perve Powder".

MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, which has been used for the treatment of chronic fatigue and as an anorectic, but caused problems of abuse and dependence. However, despite its structural similarity, the effects of MDPV bear little resemblance to other methylenedioxyphenylalkylamine derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), instead producing primarily stimulant effects with only mild entactogenic qualities.

Using MDPV

Ways of administration

MDPV can be taken orally, sublingually, rectally, intravenously, intramuscularly, insufflated, and inhaled. Oral doses for most users start at about 5 mg, insufflated at about 3 mg, sublingually at 1-2 mg,[2] rectally at 1-2 mg,[3] intramuscular at 2.5 mg,[4] and inhaled at 1-2 mg.[5] Both the salt and the free base can be smoked. It has been suggested separating doses by an hour helps to prevent anxiety and tachycardia.[6] Another experienced user suggests a dosing interval of no less than 4 hours, and a maximum daily dose of no more than 30 mg.[7] Because MDPV is active at 1-2 mg, a scale accurate to 1 mg or less is essential for safe dosing.

Effects of MDPV

MDPV has euphoric, sympathomimetic, anorectic, aphrodisiacal, and anxiogenic effects. It increases alertness and inhibits sleep. It is not entactogenic. In normal doses, it is not a hallucinogen, but in overdose it has been reported to cause symptoms similar to amphetamine psychosis, including paranoia, delusions, and visual and auditory hallucinations.[8]

Reports of euphoria with MDPV differ. Some users report that euphoria is only experienced the first few times MDPV is used.[9][10][11] With further use, euphoria rapidly decreases and disappears, although other effects of MDPV remain. The obsessive nature of MDPV use in some users may result from seeking to recapture the drug's initial euphoria. This behavior is similar to that of users of cocaine, also a NDRI.

There is no consensus on whether MDPV produces cloudy[12] or clear thinking.[13][14] Increased sociability is often reported. Aphrodisiacal effects are often reported.[15][16]

Descriptions of MDPV effects by DF members:

Combinations with MDPV

Note: these combinations have been reported by Drugs-Forum members. Being listed here does not constitute a recommendation. These drug combinations may be dangerous. It is notable how often the purpose of the drug combination is to counteract MDPV side-effects or treat an inadvertant MDPV overdose.
  • Combined with propanolol, 10-20 mg, to counteract the rapid heart rate and anxiety associated with MDPV.[16]
  • Combined with a beta blocker and a benzodiazepine to counteract a panic attack associated with MDPV.[21]
  • Eszopiclone/Lunesta taken to counteract the effects of MDPV and promote sleep.[22]
  • With GBL to counteract a minor MDPV overdose.[23][24]
  • With GHB as an aphrodisiac.[11]
  • With GHB to counteract irritability and being "really overly sensitive to stimuli" caused by MDPV.[25]
  • MDPV and 5-MeO-MIPT as an aphrodisiac.[26]
  • MDPV, 5-MeO-MIPT, and methylone is reported to mimic MDMA.[27]
  • MDPV and zolpidem/Ambien to produce visual hallucinations.[28]
  • With kratom.[5]
  • With LSD.[29]
  • With famotidine/Pepcid for stomach pain as an MDPV side-effect.[30]
  • With domperidone/Motilium for stomach pain as an MDPV side-effect.[31]
  • With ompeprazole for stomach pain as an MDPV side-effect.[32]
  • With phenibut, which is said to take "much of the edge off MDPV, while causing neither drowsiness nor sedation."[33]
  • With codeine, for a speedball-like effect.[34]
  • With MDMA.[35]
  • With methylone.[36]
  • 8 mg MDPV insufflated and 70 mg Morphine sulfate insufflated. "...incredible euphoria. Orgasms without moving. Almost scarry."[37]
  • Opinions are mixed as to whether MDPV goes well with alcohol, although most reports are positive. [38]
  • With poppy tea, reported as the 'most euphoric' drug combination. [39]

Different Uses for MDPV

  • Suggested as an aphrodisiac.[11][40]
  • Suggested as substitute for cocaine.[15][16]
  • As a study aid.[19]

Chemistry of MDPV

Column 1 Column 2
Systematic (IUPAC) name: 1-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-one
Synonyms: 1-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-pyrrolidinylpentan-1-one, 3,4-MDPV, MDPK (Methylene Dioxy Pyrrolidine Ketone)
Molecular Formula: C16H21NO3, C16H21NO3.HCl
Molar mass: 275.34 g/mol, 311.80 g/mol (hydrochloride) [41]
CAS Registry Number: 687603-66-3, 24622-62-6 (hydrochloride)
Melting Point: 238-239 °C with decomposition (hydrochloride) [42]
Boiling Point:
Flash Point: no data
Solubility: soluble in chloroform, methanol, water (no ref)
Additionnal data: density : 1.169 g/mL (no ref)

Mass and NMR spectroscopic characterization.[43]

MDPV dissolved in water has been reported to degrade quickly. There is general agreement it should be stored dry, in a sealed container, but no data on its rate of degradation under these conditions.

Reagent test results of MDPV

Reagent color produced picture video
Marquis Yellow link -

Pharmacology of MDPV


No information is available in the published scientific literature about the pharmacokinetics of MDPV.

It has been reported that MDPV is not detected on common urine drug tests.[44] It can be detected with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.


An in-vitro study using human liver microsomes demonstrated that MDPV is initially metabolized by CYP450 into catechol and methyl catechol pyrovalerone. These species are then glucuronidated or sulfated by uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase and sulfotransferase.[3] (Glucuronidation and sulfation are common chemical transformations performed by the body, chiefly in the liver. They render foreign substances more water-soluble and enable them to be excreted through the kidneys or bowel, and may also reduce their toxicity.)

The dangers of MDPV


MDPV is a dopamine re-uptake inhibitor, and increases the level of dopamine in the synaptic cleft of neurons which it affects. Drugs which increase synaptic dopamine in the ventral striatum are often psychologically habituating. MDPV has been described as "strongly habituating".[45]

Quotes from DF members regarding MDPV's habituating properties:

Some routes of administration may be safer than other. There is general agreement that oral or sublingual dosing is less likely to lead to binging, habituation, and overdose than smoking. However, even with moderate oral use, one user reported a worrisome pattern of gradually increasing tolerance and increasing dose size, and the beginnings of obsessive thoughts about the drug:

Sympathetic over-stimulation

MDPV inhibits re-uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. Both of these substances are neurotransmitters in the sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervous system, and both also have direct effects on other tissues, such as blood vessels and the heart. Toxic side-effects of NDRI substances reflect over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Symptoms include tachycardia, hypertension, diaphoresis, and anxiety, sometimes extreme. In serious overdose, anxiety can progress to frank psychosis.

Even at normal recreational doses, moderate tachycardia is common. This tachycardia is noticed to increase with even mild exertion.[51]

There is general agreement that the line between pleasure and pain is narrow with MDPV. The user who is successful with a low dose is inclined to push the dose higher in search of more euphoria, and will at some point hit toxic levels, often without warning.

Panic attacks are common. New users frequently believe, after having used MDPV a few times, that they have learned to use the drug safely, and the first panic attack can come unexpectedly.[21][52]

Descriptions of MDPV toxic effects by DF members:

One user reported "auditory hallucinations of a particularly catlike-mewling nature."[55]

Other adverse effects

Abdominal pain

Complaints of abdominal pain in MDPV users are common.[51][57][30][31]] The pain may be minor, but there have been reports of severe pain and vomiting blood. Although the underlying pathology is not known with certainty, H2 blockers have been reported to help[30], which suggests that gastritis, esophagitis, or peptic ulcer might be the cause. Domperidone/Motilium has also been recomended for this symptom.[31]

Rhabdomyolysis and kidney damage

Rhabdomyolysis is muscle breakdown. When muscle is damaged, proteins such as myoglobin are released into the bloodstream in large amounts. In severe rhabdomyolysis, these proteins can damage the kidneys. Often this damage is reversible, but in severe cases, permanent kidney damage or even kidney failure may result.

One user reported elevated creatine kinase levels after a three-day MDPV binge (creatine kinase is a measure of muscle damage).[58] Another user reported 'mild kidney dysfunction'. [59]. He attributed it to concurrent use of 'poppers' and resulting hemolysis, but MDPV-related rhabdomyolysis may also have been a contributing factor.

It has been theorized, though never proven, that rhabodomyolysis in stimulant users is caused by dehydration, and preemptive vigorous oral hydration is therefore often advised.

Movement disorders

Transient symptoms suggestive of Parkinson's Disease have been reported during MDPV use. These are descriptions from reports:

One user with similar symptoms was hospitalized with a suspected stroke.[62] However, the symptoms resolved.

DF has no reports of long-term Parkinsonian symptoms related to MDPV use. Thus far, these symptoms appear to be self-limited. However, sub-clinical damage to movement centers in the substania niagra that may not emerge until much later cannot be excluded.

Long-term cognitive changes

One DF member reports MDPV causes long-term changes in cognition and emotional stability[63] and "permanent reorientation of the reward circuitry value systems."[55]

Marketing of MDPV

Besides being sold under its own name, MDPV has often been reported as an ingredient in 'legal highs' and 'bath salts'. Prior to the ban on cathinone-like substances in the United Kingdom in April, 2010, an analysis of 18 products marketed as legal highs revealed MDPV as an undisclosed ingredient in nine. In six products it was the only ingredient.[64] Even after the ban, an analysis of 17 products marketed as 'NRG-1', 'NRG-2', MDAI, or dimethocaine revealed that four of the NRG-1 products contained MDPV, which was illegal to sell or possess in the United Kingdom at that time.[65]

Forms of MDPV

MDPV is most frequently found as a water-soluble salt. It can be converted to the free base by basification with sodium bicarbonate or 10% ammonia. Because of its semi-liquid physical properties, the free base is difficult to handle and measure.

Appearance of MDPV

MDPV salt is most commonly described as a white or tan powder. Since 2010, most samples in commercial trade have been described as white; the tan product is increasingly scarce. Early samples found in Europe circa 2007 are reported to have been gray in color. MDPV base is a yellow-green oily gel with a sweet, floral, and chemical odor.

Users who have experience with both white and tan MDPV prefer the tan-colored product, describing it as more euphoric and more aphrodisiacal than the white version. The difference between these two products is unknown.

Images of MDPV


Legal status of MDPV

United Nations

MDPV is not scheduled in the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances.


In the United States, MDPV is a DEA federally scheduled drug. On October 21, 2011, the DEA issued a temporary one year ban on MDPV, classifying it as a schedule I substance. Schedule I status is reserved for those substances with a high potential for abuse, no currently accepted use for treatment in the United States and a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug under medical supervision.[20][21]

State laws

Prior to the Federal ban being announced, it was already banned in in Louisiana[1] and Florida.[22][23][24][25]
On March 24, 2011, Kentucky passed bill HB 121 which makes MDPV, as well as three other cathinones, controlled substances in the state. It also makes it a Class A misdemeanor to sell the drug, and a Class B misdemeanor to possess it.[26]
MDPV is banned in New Jersey under Pamela's Law. The law is named after Pamela Schmidt, a Rutgers University student, murdered in March 2011 by an alleged user of MDPV.[27]
As of April 15, 2011, two of the chemicals used in making MDPV had been banned in seven states, including Louisiana, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, North Dakota, Washington and New Jersey. One of the chemicals used in MDPV has been banned in 10 more states, including, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, Arkansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Virgina, West Virginia and North Carolina.[28]
The New Jersey Division of Consumer Affairs made it "a crime to [knowingly] manufacture, distribute, sell, or possess designer drugs labeled as 'bath salts'"[29][30]
On May 5, 2011, [URL=""][COLOR=#0066cc]Tennessee[/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#0066cc] Governor Bill Haslam signed a law making it a crime to knowingly produce, manufacture, distribute, sell, offer for sale or possess with intent to produce, manufacture, distribute, sell, or offer for sale any product containing 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).[URL=""][COLOR=#0066cc][31][/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#0066cc]
[COLOR=#000000]On July 6, 2011, the governor of [URL=""][COLOR=#0066cc]Maine[/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#0066cc] signed a bill establishing fines for possession and penalties for trafficking of MDPV.[URL=""][COLOR=#0066cc][32][/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#0066cc]
[COLOR=#000000]On September 7, 2011, the [URL=""][COLOR=#0066cc]DEA[/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#0066cc] took advantage of its emergency scheduling authority to ban [autolink]Mephedrone[/autolink] ([autolink]4-MMC[/autolink]), MDPV, and [autolink]Methylone[/autolink] (M1). The substances will be illegal to possess and sell for 12 months until the DEA and [URL=""][COLOR=#0066cc]Department of Health and Human Services[/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#0066cc] (DHS) determines if these substances should be permanently banned.[[I][URL=""][COLOR=#0066cc]citation needed[/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#0066cc][/color][/I][COLOR=#0066cc]]
[COLOR=#000000][COLOR=#000000]On October 17, 2011, an [URL=""][COLOR=#0066cc]Ohio[/COLOR][/URL][COLOR=#0066cc][COLOR=#000000] law banning Synthetic Drugs took effect barring selling and/or possession of "any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of the following substances having a [autolink]stimulant[/autolink] effect on the central nervous system, including their salts, isomers, and salts of isomers" listing (1) ephedrine and (2) pyrovalerone. It also includes "Methyenedioxypyrovalerone" and Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, or MDPV (as described in this article) and appears unaffected by this law as it is: (1) not mentioned and (2) chemically bonded to a pyrovalerone group/(as opposed to a mixture, compound or complex containing pyrovalerone.) Regardless, i[COLOR=#000000][COLOR=#000000]t is illegal under the temporary DEA ban to own, sell, purchase and possess.


MDPV is not licensed by the European Medicines Agency. MDPV is not controlled at the EU level. Some individual countries have national laws regarding it.[footnote=ref41]Table of substances controlled in European Union Countries and Norway. (2008) [I]European Legal Database on Drugs[/I] [URL=""][/URL]. Retrieved from: [URL][/URL][/footnote]

[B]Sweden:[/B] MDPV was made a scheduled [autolink]drug[/autolink] on February 1, 2010. One prosecution has occurred. The offender received, after appeal, a sentence of six years in prison.[footnote=ref38]Norrköpings Tidningar på nätet (2010) Hovrätten skärper straff i MDPV-dom. Retrieved from: [URL][/URL]. Retrieved October 25, 2010.[/footnote]

[B]Denmark:[/B] MDPV was listed as a Schedule B narcotic on July 1, 2008. This listing went into effect on March 13, 2009.[footnote=ref39]Ministeriet for Sundhed og Forebyggelse (2009) Bekendtgørelse om ændring af bekendtgørelse om euforiserende stoffer. Retrieved from: [URL=""][/URL]. Retrieved October 25, 2010.[/footnote]

[B]Finland:[/B] MDPV was listed as a narcotic [autolink]drug[/autolink] without medicinal value late 2012.

[B]Republic of Ireland[/B]: MDPV apparently falls under the Criminal Justice ([autolink]Psychoactive[/autolink] Substances) Act of 2010, in effect since August 23, 2010. This act makes it illegal to "sell or supply for human consumption substances which are not specifically prescribed under the Misuse of Drugs Acts, but which have [autolink]psychoactive[/autolink] effects."[footnote=ref42]Terrapinzflyer (2010, August 23). Immediate ban for head shop substances. [Msg 54]. Message posted to [URL=""][/URL][/footnote]

[B]United Kingdom:[/B] MDPV is a Class B [autolink]drug[/autolink] under the Misuse of Drugs Act of 1971, by way of Order 2010, which banned many cathinone-like [autolink]psychoactive[/autolink] drugs This classification went into effect April 16, 2010.[footnote=ref43]Home Office. (2010) A change to the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971: Control of mephedrone and other cathinone derivatives. Retrieved from: [URL=""][/URL] on October 29, 2010.[/footnote]

[h=2]Other Countries[/h]

[h="1"]History of MDPV[/h]
1969:[/B] Boehringer Ingelheim files a patent application for MDPV.[footnote=ref3][URL=""]Patent application by Boehringer Ingelheim for MDPV.[/URL][/footnote]

[B]2005:[/B] MDPV appears as a recreational [autolink]drug[/autolink]; first mention on Drugs-Forum.[footnote=ref4]nanobrain (2005, December 15) Modafinil (Provigil). [Msg 8] Message posted to [URL=""][/URL][/footnote]

[B]2007:[/B] First seizure of MDPV as a recreational [autolink]drug[/autolink], by customs officials in the German state of Saxony. The [autolink]drug[/autolink] had been shipped from China.[footnote=ref1]Westphal, F., Junge, T., Rosner, P., Sonnichsen, F., Schuster, F. (2009) Mass and NMR spectroscopic characterization of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone: A designer drug with a-pyrrolidinophenone structure. [I]Forensic Science International, 190[/I], (1-3):1-8. [URL=""]This document is available in Drugs-Forum files.[/URL][/footnote]

[B]2008:[/B] First seizure of MDPV in the United States.[footnote=ref2]Yohannan, J. C., Bozenko Jr., J. S. (2010) [I]Milligram Journal, 7[/I], 12-15. [URL=""]This document is available in Drugs-Forum files.[/URL][/footnote]

[B]2010:[/B] MDPV made a controlled [autolink]drug[/autolink] in the UK and Sweden. First reports of the widespread retail marketing of '[autolink]bath salts[/autolink]' containing MDPV in the US.

[B]2011:[/B] MDPV sale and possession are banned in the US states of Florida and Louisiana.

[B][SIZE=3]Popularity of MDPV over time:[/SIZE][/B][SIZE=3]


[h="1"]MDPV on Drugs-Forum[/h]

[URL=""]Main MDPV experience thread.[/URL] Post & read experiences with MDPV.

[URL=""]MDPV information thread.[/URL] Post and read information about MDPV. (This is an older thread, and also contains some experience reports. Current experience reports should go in the main experience thread.)

[URL=""]Mephedrone & Beta-Ketones Forum.[/URL] MDPV has a beta-ketone structure, and most posts about it should be in this forum.

[URL=""]Mephedrone & Beta-Ketones Image Gallery.[/URL] Photos that relate to [autolink]beta-ketones[/autolink], including MDPV.

[h="1"]The latest beta ketone forum threads[/h]


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