Hydroxyzine

Hydroxyzine -name brands:Anxanil, Atarax, Vistaril, Hydroxyzine Pamoate

Type of Drug: Sedative -antihistamine

prescribed for-nausea and vomiting, reducing emotional stress(such as anxiety,tension,agitation)
itching caused by by allergies, and sedation(before and after general anesthetic)
hydroxyzine injection has been used to treat acute adult psychiatric emergencies, including acute alcoholism, for surgical sedation, and sedation before or after delivering a baby.

Also found as a cocaine adulterant. (cocaine cutting)

General Information-hydroxyzine is an antihistamine with Sedative, muscle -relaxing, anti-emetic, bronchial dilation, pain relieving, and antispasmodic properties.
as such,Hydroxyzine may be of value in a variety of applications, including relieving temporary anxiety such as stress of dental or other minor surgical procedures, acute emotional problems, and the management of anxiety associated with stomach or digestive disorders, skin problems, and behavior difficulties in children.

hydroxyzine is a first generation antihistamine of the piperazine class that is an H1 receptor antagonist.
It was first synthesized in the early 1950's, and the medicinal formulation of this drug was announced in the August 1956 issue of chemistry week.
It is a relatively older medicine and has been passed by for newer medications by most doctors, but it still works in a variety of situations.

Cautions and warnings-Hydroxyzine should not be used if you are sensitive or allergic to it.

Possible side effects- the primary side effects of Hydroxyzine are dry mouth and drowsiness,but they disappear after a few days of continuous use or when the dose is reduced.
At higher doses, you may experience occasional tremors or convulsions. Wheezing, chest tightness, and breathing difficulty are signs of a drug-sensitivity reaction.

Drug Interactions-Hydroxyzine has a depressive effect on the nervous system, producing drowsiness and sleepiness.
It should not be used with alcohol, sedatives, tranquilizers, antihistamines, or other depressants.
When these drugs are taken together the drug dose(the non-hydroxyzine)should be cut in half.

Food interactions-Take this drug with food if it upsets your stomach.

Usual dose-Adult 25-100 MGs 3 to 4 times daily/child 5 to 25 MGs 3 to 4 times daily/under 6 years of age 5 to 10 MGs 3 to 4 times daily

Overdose-the most common sign of overdose is sleepiness. Overdose victims should be taken to the hospital immediately for treatment. ALWAYS bring the medicine bottle.

Special information-be aware of the depressive effect of Hydroxyzine: Be careful when driving, operating machinery, or doing anything that requires intense concentration.
If you forget to take a dose of Hydroxyzine, take it as soon as you remember. if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the one you forgot, and go back to your regular schedule.
Do not take a double dose.

Introduction to Hydroxyzine

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Using Hydroxyzine

Ways of Administration

Hydroxyzine can be administered orally or threw injection.

Adults:25 to 100 MGs 3 to 4 times per day

child age 6 and older:5 to 25 MGs 3 to 4 times daily

child under age 6:5 to 10 MGs 3 to 4 times daily

Effects of Hydroxyzine

Hydroxyzine is an antihistamine with muscle-relaxing, anti-emetic, bronchial dilation, pain-relieving, and antispasmodic properties.

Hydroxyzine has a depressive effect on the nervous system. Be careful when operating machinery or driving,or doing anything that requires intense concentration.

Combinations with Hydroxyzine

Hydroxyzine should not be combined with alcohol, sedatives,tranquilizers, antihistamines, or other depressants.
When these drugs are taken together the drug dose(the non-Hydroxyzine)should be cut in half.

Different Uses for Hydroxyzine

Hydroxyzine can be used to treat nausea/vomiting, reducing emotional stress, itching caused by allergies, and sedation.

Hydroxyzine injection has been used to treat acute psychiatric emergencies, including acute alcoholism ,for surgical sedation, and sedation before or after delivering a baby.

Hydroxyzine has also been used intravenously as an alternative to general anesthesia or local blocking agents in pain producing procedures, such as some dermatological procedures, where it is useful to improve a patient's cooperation by reducing hypermotility and relieving anxiety and apprehension. This is especially true in cases where the patient is a child.

Pharmacology of Hydroxyzine


LD50 (mg/kg) (as the dihydrochloride) [1] :
Mice: 950 orally, 126 intraperitoneally

Chemistry of Hydroxyzine


Column 1 Column 2
Systematic(IUPAC) name: (±)-2-(2-{4-[(4-chlorophenyl)-phenylmethyl]piperazin-1-yl}ethoxy)ethanol
Synonyms: 1-(p-chloro-α-phenylbenzyl)-4-(2-hydroxyethoxyethyl)piperazine, 1-(p-chlorodiphenylmethyl)-4-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl]piperazine, N-(4-chlorobenzhydryl)-N'-hydroxyethyloxyethyl)piperazine, 1-(p-chlorobenzhydryl)-4-[2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethyl]diethylenediamine; Alamon, Atarax, Aterax, Durrax, Orgatrax, Quiess, Vistaril Parenteral (dihydrochloride); Equipose, Masmoran, Paxistil, Vistaril Pamoate (pamoate)
Molecular Formula: C21H27ClN2O2, C21H27ClN2O2.2HCl (dihydrochloride), C21H27ClN2O2.C23H16O6
Molar mass: 374.90 g/mol, 447.83 g/mol (dihydrochloride), 763.27 g/mol (pamoate) [2]
CAS Registry Number: 68-88-2, 2192-20-3 (dihydrochloride), 10296-75-0 (pamoate)
Melting Point: 193°C (dihydrochloride)
Boiling Point: no data
Flash Point: no data
Solubility: Dihydrochloride very soluble in water; soluble in chloroform; slightly soluble in acetone; practically insoluble in ether. Pamoate freely soluble in dimethylformamide; practically insoluble in water, methanol
Additionnal data: none
Notes: Dihydrochloride solutions are unstable to intense UV light (direct sunlight for example); aspect : white crystals; bitter taste. Pamoate aspect : pale yellow crystals
[1]

The Dangers of Hydroxyzine

Physical Health Risks

Small amounts of Hydroxyzine can pass into breast milk and can affect a nursing infant. Nursing mothers should use alternative feeding methods while taking this medication.

Older adults are more sensitive to antihistamine side effects, particularly confusion, difficult or painful urination, drowsiness, dizziness, a faint feeling, nightmares or excitement, nervousness, restlessness, irritability, and dry mouth, nose, or throat.

Extreme dry mouth

Overdose

The most common sign of overdose is sleepiness. Overdose victims should be taken to a hospital emergency room for treatment. ALWAYS bring the medicine bottle.

Reported Deaths

There have been 147 deaths reported from hydroxyzine.

Mental Health Risks


In seniors Hydroxyzine can cause nervousness,restlessness,irritability,and confusion.

Hydroxyzine can also cause concentrating in general to be difficult.

Side Effects

The primary side effects of Hydroxyzine are
  • Headaches
  • Skin rash
  • Dry mouth
  • Drowsiness
The latter 2 side effects disappear after a few days of continuous use or when the dose is reduced.

At higher doses you may experience:
  • tremors or convulsions.
  • Wheezing
  • Chest tightness and breathing difficulty.

Addiction

Hydroxyzine can be addictive.
but can also be used to help treat withdrawals from opiates.

Physical Addiction

Mental Addiction

Hydroxyzine can cause psychiatric dependance.

Producing Hydroxyzine

Forms of Hydroxyzine

Legal Status of Hydroxyzine

United Nations

prescription only

USA

prescription only

EU

prescription only

Other Countries

History of Hydroxyzine

References


[1]Merck Index, fifteenth edition (2013)
[2]Calculated from Atomic Weights of the Elements, 2007

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