Introduction to MDAMDA was first synthesized in 1910 by G. Mannish and W. Jacobson however its psychoactive effects had not yet been discovered until it was ingested in July of 1930 by a Mr. Gordon Alles, from there on Mr. Alles proceeded to license the rights of MDA to the Smith Kline and French Pharmaceutical Company. The official testing period for MDA began in 1939, at first with various animal subjects and then later on in 1941 with an assortment of human test subjects in an attempt to explore the possibility of MDAs antidepressant and anorectic effects. Between the years of 1949 and 1957, more than 500 human test subjects were administered a variety of MDA dosages, with only one death, occurring in january of 1953 as the result of a 450 milligram injection. Between 1958 and 1961 MDA was patented by H. D. Brown as a cough suppressant, and as an ataractic by Smith, Kline & French Pharmaceutical Company.
In 1963 MDA first appeared as a new recreational drug in the research chemical market. Inexpensive and readily available, MDA was seen for sale by a variety of scientific supply groups, however it was not until the 1970s that MDA was added to the United States list of controlled substances, though this affected MDAs market very little as it continued to flourish throughout the country. Pharmacologically, MDA possess a high affinity for the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters, causing a release of serotonin and dopamine by acting as a substrate for the respective transporters similar to that of MDMA. However due to the higher efficiency for the 5HT2A serotonin receptor, MDA tends to cause more of a psychedelic/hallucinogenic effect than that of MDMA.
Ways of AdministrationMDA can be administered through a variety of different routes including oral, intranasal, sublingual, intravenous, and rectally, however the most common route of administration is through oral consumption due most likely to the high concentration of serotonin receptors which are found within the gastrointestinal tract. An average dosage of MDA for oral administration is between 100 to 160 milligrams.
Column 1 Column 2 Overall Duration 6 - 10 hours Onset 20 - 90 minutes Duration 2 - 5 hours After Effects 2 - 4 hours
Column 1 Column 2 Threshold 30 - 50 milligrams Low 75 - 100 milligrams Common 100 - 150 milligrams High 130 - 170 milligrams Very High 170+ milligrams
Effects of MDA
- Elevated mood
- Feelings of comfort and acceptance
- Feelings of closeness with others
- Feelings of love and empathy
- Increased musical appreciation
- Increased sensory awareness
- Visual distortions
- Mild visual hallucinations
- Elevated heart rate
- Elevated blood pressure
- Changes in body temperature regulation
- Difficulty concentrating
- Muscle tension
- Erectile dysfunction
- Nausea and vomiting
Pharmacology of MDA
LD50 (mg/kg) (as the hydrochloride)  :
Mice : 68 intraperitoneally
Rat : 27 intraperitoneally
guinea pig : 28 intraperitoneally
Chemistry of MDA
Column 1 Column 2 Systematic (IUPAC) name: [alpha]-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole-5-ethanamine Synonyms: 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy--methyl--phenylethylamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine, "Love", EA-1299, NSC 9978, NSC 27106 Molecular Formula: C10H13NO2 Molar mass: 179.22 g/mol, 215.68 g/mol (hydrochloride) CAS Registry Number: 4764-17-4, 6292-91-7 Melting Point: 187-188°C (crystals from isopropanol/ether), also reported 180-181°C (hydrochloride) Boiling Point: 157°C @ 22 mmHg, 80-90°C @ 0.2 mmHg Flash Point: no data Solubility: Hydrochloride easily soluble in water, alcohol Additionnal data: none Notes: Freebase aspect : almost colorless oil. Hydrochloride : crystals from isopropanol/ether
The Dangers of MDAMDA is considerably more toxic than MDMA with the symptoms typically stemming from overstimulation of the central nervous system and cardio vascular system. Likewise the concept has been brought into question that many of the substituted amphetamine type drugs such as MDA and MDMA may possibly be neurotoxic.
The median lethal dose (LD50) of MDA has been reported in mice as 92 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection.
Legal Status of MDA
MDA is a controlled substance : 21 CFR 1308.11
United NationsMDA is considered to be a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
USAMDA is considered to be a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States as of 1970.
BrazilMDA is listed as a controlled substance in Brazil making it illegal to buy, sell, possess, or manufacture.
United KingdomMDA is considered to be a Class A substance in the United Kingdom, making it illegal to buy, sell, possess, or manufacture.
New ZealandMDA is considered to be a Class A substance in New Zealand.
CanadaAs of 2012, MDA is considered to be a schedule I substance in the country of Canada.
ReferencesMerck Index, fifteenth edition (2013)