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List of Nootropics

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Nootropics : An Introductory Guide
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Note from editor: The Nootropics listed in this article have been compiled as described by various different authors. Therefore some are repeated but with different information. Some of the information is based on individuals experience or research and should not be regarded as being from a legitimate medical resource.
Edited by: Smoolio

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Author Key: Sections are colour coded to differentiate between different sources/authors.
Green: Unknown Author
Orange: R.U. Sirius
Purple: John Morgenthaler
[COLOR=#0070c0]Blue:[/COLOR] Bj Krawchuk (krawchuk@cpsc.ucalgary.ca)
[B][COLOR=#c00000]Red:[/COLOR][/B] Misc. or Unknown Authors
[I](If you are the original author of part or part(s) of this guide, please contact editor/admin to be referenced.)[/I]
[COLOR=#23798d]_______________________[/COLOR][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][B]

[U][h="1"]Introduction[/h][/U][/B]
[/COLOR][FONT=Verdana]Quick guide to the most popular nootropic supplements. All can be stacked, or taken alone. Neurostim+C[FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica][SIZE=-1][FONT=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica][SIZE=-1]™ is a good premade stack, though I like to add [autolink]piracetam[/autolink] to it when I need to concentrate in order to learn (only 4 more months of grad school at night, yay). All of these typically take days to weeks to make a noticeable improvement on concentration and focus, and are best taken in longer periods (2-3 months) followed by down time of one month. As with all supplements, start with the basics, and move on from there.
[FONT=Verdana]
__________________________________________________ _______[INDENT][U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][h="2"]Piracetam[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] (2-oxo-Pyrrolidine Acetamide) - is a derivative of the [autolink]neurotransmitter[/autolink] GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid). Chemically related to the [autolink]amino acid[/autolink] Pyroglutamic Acid (Pyrrolidine Carboxylic acid), which occurs in cerebrospinal fluid and plays an important role in cognitive functioning.

[FONT=Verdana][B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow){Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation}


[*][FONT=Verdana]Increases Cerebral Phospholipids & Cellular Membrane Fluidity (By interacting with the polar head moieties of the phospholipid bilayer) {Supports healthy neuron communication & structure}.


[*][FONT=Verdana]Supports Cognitive Receptors (By amplifying the density of the Muscarinic Cholinergic {Frontal Cortex, Striatum, & Hippocampus}, NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) {Hippocampus}, & AMPA (Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-isoxazole-Propionic Acid) Cerebral Cortex Receptors {Strengthens [autolink]neurotransmitter[/autolink] receptors involved in memory and neuroprotection}
[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Stimulates the Corpus Callosum, an area of the brain that controls communication between the left and right hemispheres (Increases communication between both hemispheres) {Involved in speech and creative thinking}.
[/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) {Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory}
[/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (By increasing Red-White blood cells & Platelet deformability, inhibiting thromboxane A2 synthetase or antagonism of thromboxane A2, reducing von Willebrand's factor & fibrinogen levels) {Supports Healthy Blood Flow}.
[/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Decreases EEG complexity (Increases cooperatively of brain functional processing) {Positively effects Neuro-Electrical Functioning}.
[/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Has a significant antioxidant effect.
[/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana][autolink]Piracetam[/autolink] positively supports healthy cognitive & cardiovascular functioning by a multifaceted means of action.
[/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] [B]Notes[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Approved & used since 1970’s worldwide (Europe, Asia, and South American) for various health conditions. Recommended by many healthcare professionals and health organizations, such as the Life Extension Foundation, as a Nootropic.
[FONT=Verdana] Piracetum is the first step in the use of [autolink]nootropics[/autolink], it also stacks nicely with all of the following.

[FONT=Verdana][B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 2-6 grams daily

[FONT=Verdana][B]When can I feel it?[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Works within an hour to a few days.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][h="2"]Aniracetam[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana][autolink]Aniracetam[/autolink] (1-Anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) is a fat soluble potent analog of [autolink]Piracetam[/autolink].

[FONT=Verdana][B]Biochemical Effects[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Similar to [autolink]Piracetam[/autolink], but due to its fat solubility its effects last longer and is far more potent.

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Helps increase communication between your left and right sides of the brain, resulting in improved creatively, perception, and more.


[*][FONT=Verdana]Has an more potent AMPA receptor enhancing effect than [autolink]Piracetam[/autolink], resulting in better focus and concentration.


[*][FONT=Verdana]Been reported to be best ‘cetam for anti-anxiety effects
[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana][B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 750-1500 mg Daily with meals

[FONT=Verdana][B]When can I feel it?[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Works within an hour to a few days.

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[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][U][B][h="2"]Oxiracetam[/h][/B][/U][/COLOR]
[FONT=Verdana](4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinacetamide) is a potent fast acting water soluble analog of [autolink]Piracetam[/autolink]. Works faster than all other [autolink]racetams[/autolink].

[FONT=Verdana][B] Biochemical Effects[/B]
[FONT=Verdana]Similar to [autolink]Piracetam[/autolink], but much stronger than [autolink]Aniracetam[/autolink] and far faster acting. The preferred premium Nootropic for the elite smart [autolink]drug[/autolink] user.

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Supports multiple aspects of Cognition


[*][FONT=Verdana]Boosts Brain ATP levels (Mental Energy)


[*][FONT=Verdana]Increase [autolink]Choline[/autolink] Acetylcholinetranferase the neuro-enzyme that creates Acetylcholine (in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum) {Memory Support}
[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana][B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 800-1600 mg Daily

[FONT=Verdana][B]When can I feel it?[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Works within an hour to a few days.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][h="2"]Pramiracetam[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]Pramiracetam[/autolink] (N-{2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl}-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine-acetamide) is a fat soluble potent analog of [autolink]Piracetam[/autolink], the most potent Racetam compound being about 15 times stronger than [autolink]Piracetam[/autolink].

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 100-300mg daily

[FONT=Verdana][B]Availability[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Sporadic due to customs issues.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][h="2"]L-Huperzine A[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] Huperzine A is a natural plant [autolink]alkaloid[/autolink] (extracted from Huperzia serrata), which quickly and potently boosts memory, learning, and concentration. Used worldwide for decades in adults and high school students. Is considered the most potent short term memory enhancer available.

[FONT=Verdana][B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Potently raises Acetylcholine (main memory [autolink]neurotransmitter[/autolink]) by inhibiting its breakdown from Acetylcholinesterase.


[*][FONT=Verdana]Strengthens the Brain's NMDA receptors (Enhances Focus, Learning, and Brain Functioning)
[/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana][B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Take 200-400 mcg daily for best results with meals.

[FONT=Verdana][B] When can I feel it?[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Works within an hour to a few days.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][h="2"]Alpha GPC[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana](Alpha L-GlycerylPhosphorylCholine), also known as [autolink]choline[/autolink] alfoscerate, is an unique NeuroActive form of [autolink]choline[/autolink] that rapidly penetrates the blood brain barrier, naturally found in small amounts in milk and soybeans.

[FONT=Verdana][B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]A precursor for the [autolink]neurotransmitter[/autolink] AcetylCholine [Supports Memory]


[*][FONT=Verdana]A precursor for PhosphatidylCholine [Supports Brain Structure]
[/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] [B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 300-2000 mg daily.

[FONT=Verdana][B]When can I feel it?[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Works within a few days.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][h="2"]Vinpocetine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] (Ethyl Apovincamine) is a derivative of vincamine (a phytonootropic from periwinkle). While less potent as a mental [autolink]stimulant[/autolink] than vincamine, Vinpocetine is the preferred nootropic for Enhancing blood flow to the Brain, Eyes, and Ears. Its effects on Cerebral Blood Flow far exceeds all other [autolink]nootropics[/autolink].

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Enhances Brain Metabolism (By increasing Glucose Utilization, Blood & Oxygen Flow) (Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation)


[*][FONT=Verdana]Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) (Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory)


[*][FONT=Verdana]Inhibits Platelet Aggregation (Reduces abnormal blood clots).


[*][FONT=Verdana]Has a significant antioxidant effect.

[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana][B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 20-40 mg daily with meals.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][h="2"]Theanine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] (gamma-ethylamino-L-glutamic acid) is an unique [autolink]amino acid[/autolink] found in trace amounts in green tea. It converts in the brain into GABA, the neurochemical involved in inhibiting over active mental activities, such as stress, anxiety, worrying, and nervousness. Unlike herbs [autolink]theanine[/autolink] protects & enhances Cognition, without causing sleepy or drowsiness.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]Instant relaxation due to its potent effects on raising GABA


[*][FONT=Verdana]Unlike the supplement GABA it passes through the blood brain barrier readily and has superior GABA raising effects.


[*][FONT=Verdana]Has been studied compared to [autolink]Paxil[/autolink].
[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana][B]Notes[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] In Japan it is used in soft drinks much like [autolink]caffeine[/autolink] is added in the US, but to relax rather than stimulate the mind.

[FONT=Verdana][B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 200-1000mg daily.

[FONT=Verdana][B]When can I feel it?[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Works within a few hours.

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[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][U][B][h="2"]Acetyl-L-Carnitine[/h][/B][/U] [/COLOR]

[FONT=Verdana](2-Acetoxy-3-(trimethylaminium)butanoic acid) is an amino acid-like compound related to [autolink]Choline[/autolink] found in high levels in brain cells.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Biochemical Effects[/B]

[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]I[FONT=Verdana]ncreases Acetylation of Coenzyme A (a precursor to Acetylcholine) [Memory Enhancer]


[*][FONT=Verdana]Enhances transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria [Increased Cellular Energy Levels]
[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] [B]Dose[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 500-3000mg daily

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#00b050][h="2"]Choline[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]Choline[/autolink] supplements should be taken during the administration of all [autolink]nootropics[/autolink]. Lecithin (caps and granules) is a cheap [autolink]choline[/autolink] source. Lecithin should be taken in doses of 5-8 grams daily to support the [autolink]nootropics[/autolink]. [autolink]Alpha GPC[/autolink] (listed above) is another source for [autolink]choline[/autolink]. It is more effective / more expensive, but only requires dosing in the 1-3 gram range to support [autolink]choline[/autolink] levels in the brain.


[/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][h="7"][noedit]============================[/noedit][/h][INDENT]

[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#e36c0a][h="2"]Vasopressin[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana]Definitely the most euphoric of the memory-enhancing intelligence-increase [autolink]drugs[/autolink] outside of the one being called "[autolink]Euphoria[/autolink]" (more on [autolink]Euphoria[/autolink] later).
[FONT=Verdana]Vasopressin is marketed as Diapid, a prescription [autolink]drug[/autolink] made by our old friends Sandoz. It can also be ordered as Vasopressin through chemical supply houses by those who know the ropes. I had five squirts of Vasopressin out of a nasal inhaler. I was surprised by how strong the effects were. I had that charged-up hyperconfident rush that one experiences with [autolink]cocaine[/autolink], but combined with much clearer ideation and without the numbing and discomfort or the strange and disquieting hard edges which often accompany even the more euphoric [URL="http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=99459"]coke[/URL] highs. It didn't last very long, about two hours, most of which unfortunately spent riding the BART and walking. By the time I got home, the experience had pretty well dissipated.
[FONT=Verdana] I did not have an opportunity to experience Vasopressin as a work/writing [autolink]drug[/autolink]. It was clear, however, simply from reading (I was reading "Gravity's Rainbow" at the time and I consider that a fairly challenging test of comprehension) on the BART ride home, that Vasopressin is an excellent tool for rapid learning and comprehension of complex systems of thought.

[FONT=Verdana] The only other time I had Vasopressin, it was in the form of Diapid. I had only two squirts at a party late at night on top of fairly substantial amounts of [URL="http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=77209"]marijuana[/URL] and [autolink]alcohol[/autolink]. It didn't noticeably cut through the depressant effects of those [autolink]drugs[/autolink]. However, I did experience an intensified and prolonged orgasm!

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=Black]It is a naturally occurring peptide that can cause a wide variety of effects beyond those mentioned in the article. It strains the heart by reducing the heart's food and oxygen supply and increasing the heart's workload by increasing blood pressure. In individuals with hidden or overt heart problems, this can mean a heart attack. In addition vasopressin can cause a dangerous elevation in brain fluid pressure, leading to stroke, coma, or death. [/COLOR]
[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=Black] Also it can produce vertigo, circumoral pallor, pounding headaches, cramps, diarrhea, gas, nausea, vomiting, urticaria, difficulty breathing, anaphylactic shock, and normal shock. [/COLOR]
[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=Black] It is dangerous to use in people with a history of epilepsy, migraine, asthma, heart failure, or poor kidney function. Vasopressin can have dangerous interactions with most [autolink]stimulants[/autolink], including pemoline, [autolink]caffeine[/autolink], diet pills, and cold medications.[/COLOR]

[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=Black] Overall vasopressin is a real Pandora's Box, but fortunately there is ongoing research to develop safer and more effective alternatives.[/COLOR]

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#e36c0a][h="2"]Hydergine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] The invention of one Dr. Albert Hoffmann of Sandoz Laboratories. I know of many people who got their hands on buckets of this stuff and I know of nobody who continues to take it. The effects are said to be cumulative rather than immediate and everybody seems to lose interest. "I forgot to take my Hydergine" is a term which one often hears from chagrined "intelligence agents," fully cognizant (even without Hydergine) of the ironies involved. This probably says more about the people that I hang out with than about Hydergine as an intelligence increase agent.

[FONT=Verdana] Incidentally, Dr. Hoffmann told a friend of mine that one can get exactly the same effects one gets from daily megadoses of Hydergine by using 25 micrograms of [autolink]LSD[/autolink] daily. I have not experimented with subthreshold acid as an IQ substance, so I cannot comment.

[FONT=Verdana][B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
[FONT=Verdana]It is an ergot [autolink]alkaloid[/autolink], the same chemical class as [autolink]LSD[/autolink], but with no psychedelic or immediate effects. It is currently prescribed to help alleviate some of the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, but, despite the tremendous numbers of people with this affliction, Hydergine is not widely used, mainly because it is only effective in about 1/3 of the people using it. As a matter of fact it worsens cognition in about 1/3 of people.
[FONT=Verdana] It is dangerous to use in individuals with any history of psychosis, low or [autolink]high blood pressure[/autolink], heart disease, pregnant women (at any point in pregnancy), or a history of migraines.
[FONT=Verdana] Hydergine has caused rashes, [autolink]drug[/autolink] fever, headaches, dizziness, vision problems, appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fainting, sluggishness, drowsiness, emotional [autolink]withdrawal[/autolink], apathy, nervousness, hostility, confusion, depression, weakness, collapse, and coma.

_____________________________________

[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#e36c0a][h="2"]Lecithin, Choline[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]

(with Vitamin C and B6)
[FONT=Verdana]While perhaps less intriguing and glamorous to technophilic reality hackers, most of these easily available cognitive enhancers have a substantially perceptible effect. LECITHIN seems to be the exception. Even at "Durk and Sandy" dosage levels there was no noticeable enhancement of focus, recall, etc. [autolink]CHOLINE[/autolink] and INOSITOL, at about three grams each, produce mild but definite results with no discomfort and can be used daily. I did this once for about a month and found myself losing my sense of humor. However, if you're already humorless you might just as well give this a go. PHENYLALANINE is quite speedy. While it can be used for creativity and focus, it tends to make one irritable. For emergency use only.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
[FONT=Verdana]These compounds are both basically safe and effective if not spectacular. I would add a few notes though. Use caution with these if you have a history of epilepsy. [autolink]Choline[/autolink] may be more effective when taken with inositol. B6 is more effective and better for you when taken in wide-spectrum mega-B vitamin supplements.
[FONT=Verdana] PHENYLALANINE is neurotoxic and can cause brain damage in about 2% of the population [uploader's note: the 2% with the metabolic disorder PKU, that is], and it's probably not good in large doses for anyone. TYROSINE on the other hand is not toxic and is a more effective substitute.
[FONT=Verdana] DEANER can be made more effective by combining it with METHIONINE, but be cautious of large doses of methionine if you have a history of psychosis. In addition, there are other nutrients that are save and effective in increasing psychological energy in most people, INOSINE, CYTOCHROME C, LYSINE, and GINSENG.

_____________________________________

[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#e36c0a][U][B][h="2"]Deaner[/h][/B][/U][/COLOR]
[FONT=Verdana] This is getting really popular with the "health food set." Experientially, the effect is very subtle but noticeable. I've tried this a few times and what I've found is that if I already have a task to do, I will do it and, in retrospect, I will realize that I sustained my attention for an unusually long time without flagging or needing a break. However, if I use this (as I often do with other cognitive enhancers) without a precise sense of what the task at hand is, it doesn't clarify and help to motivate activity. This is an important point.
[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]Drugs[/autolink] such as Vasopressin, Pemoline, [autolink]Euphoria[/autolink] and THA can actually cut through confusion and ennui and help invoke will. My guess is that most of these substances also work, to varying degrees, on the pleasure centers of the brain, provoking one's natural 'joie di vivre' and thereby provoking enthusiasm for creative and organizational activities.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#e36c0a][h="2"]Pemoline[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] Usually combined with Magnesium. The information most frequently passed around in reference to MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE was published by the Church of the Tree of Life some years ago in their publication "Bark Leaf". It recommends taking "Mag-Pem" at 50-100 mgs. every day for two months in order to substantially increase your I.Q. OUCH! This program is a sure ticket to severe headaches and extreme nervousness. However, in the 20-30 milligram range, I've found that this can be used twice weekly with excellent results. The lift is very substantial and noticeable.

[FONT=Verdana] I, and several of my friends, find it particularly good for writing, both creative and functional. For rapid-fire associations and grand synthesis just combine it with moderate amounts of [autolink]Cannabis[/autolink] (Sativa, if possible). It lasts about twelve hours, coming on slowly and having its greatest effect at around the fifth through the tenth hours. Clarity and verbal acuity are the strong points here. At times, the sheer mass of information, new thoughts and connections can overwhelm and put one into a rather confused state, particularly if one is not applying oneself to something. When this occurs I find that I can slow down my thoughts to a point where there is coherence simply by verbalizing them or writing them down. Unlike its close cousin "[autolink]EUPHORIA[/autolink]," Pemoline is emotionally bland.
[FONT=Verdana] It is not a pleasure [autolink]drug[/autolink]. WARNING: from my observations, approximately one in every ten people get nothin' but headaches from even small doses of Pemoline.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] PEMOLINE is an interesting [autolink]drug[/autolink] at the center of some current research. Unfortunately, it is not known how the [autolink]drug[/autolink] works. If it was, a safer alternative could be found. Pemoline has caused fatal liver failure, still births, La Tourette's Syndrome, seizures, hallucinations, uncontrollable movements of the tongue, lips, face, eyes, and extremities, depression, delirium, dizziness, irritability, headaches, drowsiness, insomnia, anorexia, nausea, and cramps. Caution should be used when combining it with any other [autolink]drug[/autolink] because it is known to have strong dangerous interactions with many [autolink]drugs[/autolink]. Finally, pemoline, a controlled substance, is recognized by the government as having an abuse/[autolink]addiction[/autolink] liability.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#e36c0a] [h="2"]PRL-8-53[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] Untried by your reviewer at this time. However, Durk Pearson is quoted in 'High Frontiers' as saying that "[autolink]PRL-8-53[/autolink] is a terrific memory enhancer. Normally you can memorize about seven or eight digits just by looking at them for a second. [autolink]PRL-8-53[/autolink] gives the average person a memory span of about 21 to 22 digits." He also reported that one amnesia victim was cured with one dose.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] I could find no information on this, even in the most up to date references. The fact that it still is referred to by its code number probably means that it is still highly experimental; they may not even know what its structure is yet. It might be safe, but you are playing neurochemical roulette.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#e36c0a][h="2"]THA[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] Untried by your reviewer at this time. Again, Durk Pearson, this time in 'High Frontiers/Reality Hackers Newsletter:' "In combination with arecoline, THA has been found to be remarkably effective as a memory improver ... it's important that the dosage be individualized ... too much will actually impair memory and produce sweating, excessive muscle tone and mouth-watering." The standard dosage is "1 to 2 mg." however, Durk recommends that you start with a quarter of that every two to four hours and work up - if you get those [autolink]side effects[/autolink], back off.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]Safety & Warnings[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] This is potentially very dangerous. It is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor making its actions closely related to Nerve Gas, Pesticides and Strychnine. BE CAREFUL!

[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][h="7"][noedit]============================[/noedit][/h][INDENT]
[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#7030a0][h="2"]Centrophenoxine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]Centrophenoxine[/autolink] is an intelligence booster and also an effective anti-aging therapy. It has been shown to cause improvements in various aspects of memory function and a 30% increase in lifespan of laboratory animals.

[FONT=Verdana] One of the most widely recognized aspects of aging is the buildup of lipofuscin in brain cells (lipofuscin is the stuff that age spots are made of.) [autolink]Centrophenoxine[/autolink] removes lipofuscin deposits from brain cells and reduces its rate of accumulation in young brain cells. It also rejuvenates the synaptic structure - the area where the actual transfer of information takes place between nerve cells.

[FONT=Verdana][B] PRECAUTIONS:[/B] [autolink]Centrophenoxine[/autolink] should not be used by persons who are easily excitable, people with severe arterial [autolink]hypertension[/autolink], or those subject to convulsions or involuntary musculoskeletal movements. The [autolink]drug[/autolink] also should not be used by nursing mothers. Adverse effects are rare, but include hyperexcitability, insomnia, tremors, motion sickness, paradoxical drowsiness, and depression. There is no toxicity of [autolink]Centrophenoxine[/autolink] at therapeutic doses.

[FONT=Verdana][B] DOSAGE:[/B] Take 1000 to 3000mg per day. [autolink]Centrophenoxine[/autolink] takes effect very quickly. You'll notice an increase in alertness and a slight stimulating quality.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]SOURCES:[/B] [autolink]Centrophenoxine[/autolink] is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from the address below.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#7030a0][h="2"]Choline[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]Choline[/autolink] can be found in several forms including [autolink]choline[/autolink] bitartrate, [autolink]choline[/autolink] chloride, or phosphatidyl [autolink]choline[/autolink]. Phosphatidyl [autolink]choline[/autolink] (PC) is the active ingredient of lecithin. All of these forms of [autolink]choline[/autolink] will produce memory boosting effects, but PC has some unique effects as well.

[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]Choline[/autolink] compounds, including PC, are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier, where the brain utilizes the [autolink]choline[/autolink] to make acetylcholine (a [autolink]neurotransmitter[/autolink] that plays an important role in memory). Thus, [autolink]choline[/autolink] enhances memory by increasing the amount of acetylcholine available for memory and thought processes.

[FONT=Verdana] PC has some other important health benefits. It functions as a source of structural material for every cell in the human body, particularly those of the brain and nerves. It also aids in the metabolism of fats, regulates blood cholesterol, and nourishes the fat-like sheathes of nerve fibers.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]PRECAUTIONS:[/B] Any compound that acts like a precursor to acetylcholine such as [autolink]choline[/autolink], PC, or DMAE should not be used by people who are manic depressive because it can deepen the depressive phase. [autolink]Choline[/autolink] bitartrate and [autolink]choline[/autolink] chloride can sometimes cause a fishy odor or diarrhea. PC, however, does not have either of these effects.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]DOSAGE:[/B] Take 3 grams of [autolink]choline[/autolink] per day in three divided doses. If you're taking lecithin you need to take a lot more because only part of the lecithin is [autolink]choline[/autolink]. Often the label will provide information on the quantity of [autolink]choline[/autolink] per tablespoon. All forms of [autolink]choline[/autolink] should be taken with one gram per day of vitamin B-5 so that the [autolink]choline[/autolink] can be converted into acetylcholine.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]SOURCES:[/B] [autolink]Choline[/autolink] and lecithin are considered nutritional supplements and can be found at health food or [autolink]drug[/autolink] stores. Commercial lecithin usually contains other oils and phosphatides besides phosphatidyl [autolink]choline[/autolink]. Look at the label before you buy and make sure the product contains more than 30% phosphatidyl [autolink]choline[/autolink]. Also, you should taste your lecithin and make sure it does not taste bitter (this indicates rancidity). Much lecithin on the market is rancid. The best form of lecithin I know is Twin Labs brand "PC 55" - it contains 55% PC and is always very fresh.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#7030a0][h="2"]DHEA[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] Dehydroepiandosterone (pronounced dee-hi-dro-epp-ee-an-dro-ster-own) is a [autolink]steroid[/autolink] hormone produced in the adrenal gland. [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] is the most abundant [autolink]steroid[/autolink] in the human bloodstream. Research has found it to have significant anti-obesity, anti-tumor, anti-aging, and anti-cancer effects. [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] levels naturally drop as people age and there is a good reason to think that taking a [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] supplement may extend your life and make you more youthful while you're alive. Additionally, [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] may be an important player in cognitive enhancement.

[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] is involved in protecting brain neurons from senility-associated degenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease. Not only does the neuronal degenerative condition occur most frequently at the time of lowest [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] levels, but brain tissue contains more [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] than is found in the bloodstream. In an experiment with brain cell tissue cultures, Dr. Eugene Roberts found that very low concentrations of [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] were found to "increase the number of neurons, their ability to establish contacts, and their differentiation." [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] also enhanced long-term memory in mice undergoing avoidance training. Perhaps it plays a similar role in human brain function.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]DOSAGE [/B]of [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] ranges from 50 mg to 2000 mg per day. There is no solid information indicating an optimal dosage for humans, but, if you want to get serious, you can get your [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] levels checked every few months (for about $65), each time raising the amount of [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] you take. When your blood levels reach what is normal for a 20-year-old human, then you're taking enough.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]SOURCES:[/B] [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] is now being used by many people with AIDS because of its immune enhancement and antiviral effects. [autolink]DHEA[/autolink] is not FDA approved but AIDS buyers groups are able to sell it to members because the FDA has a policy of looking the other way when it comes to the activity of these groups.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#7030a0][h="2"]Hydergine (Ergoloid Mesylates)[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] Research in other countries has shown that Hydergine improves mental function, prevents damage to brain cells, and may even be able to reverse existing damage to brain cells. Hydergine acts in several ways to enhance mental capabilities and slow down or reverse the aging processes in the brain. Its wide variety of effects include the following:

[FONT=Verdana] 1. Increases in blood supply to the brain.
[FONT=Verdana] 2. Increases the amount of oxygen delivered to the brain.
[FONT=Verdana] 3. Enhances metabolism in brain cells.
[FONT=Verdana] 4. Protects the brain from damage during periods of decreased and/or insufficient oxygen supply.
[FONT=Verdana] 5. Slows the deposit of age pigment (lipofuscin) in the brain.
[FONT=Verdana] 6. Prevents free radical damage to brain cells.
[FONT=Verdana] 7. Increases intelligence, memory, learning and recall.
[FONT=Verdana] 8. Normalizes systolic blood pressure.
[FONT=Verdana] 9. lowers abnormal high cholesterol levels in some cases.
[FONT=Verdana] 10. Reduces symptoms of tiredness, dizziness, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

[FONT=Verdana] One way that Hydergine may enhance memory and learning is by mimicking the effect of a substance called nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF stimulates protein synthesis that results in the growth of dendrites in brain cells. Dendrites facilitate communication throughout the central nervous system and are necessary for memory and learning. New learning requires new dendritic growth.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]PRECAUTIONS:[/B] If too large a dose is used when first taking Hydergine. it may cause slight nausea, gastric disturbance, or headache. Overall, Hydergine does not produce any serious [autolink]side effects[/autolink], it is non-toxic even at very large doses, and it is contraindicated only for individuals who have chronic or acute psychosis.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]DOSAGE:[/B] The US recommended dosage is 3 mg per day; however, the European recommended dosage is 9 mg per day, taken in three divided doses. Most of the research has been done at levels of 9 to 12 mg per day. It may take several weeks before you notice the effects of hydergine.

[FONT=Verdana][B] SOURCES:[/B] Hydergine is available in the United States and you can buy it if you have a doctor's prescription, but keep in mind that your doctor may not be familiar with the uses I have discussed. It can also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from overseas (see below).

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#7030a0][h="2"]Sulbutiamine (Arcalion)[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana]Sulbutiamine is a new compound that has been described as being like Hydergine only better. It has been shown to facilitate wakefulness, improve long-term memory, speed up reaction time, decrease anxiety, and increase overall resistance to stress.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]DOSAGE:[/B] To combat fatigue take two 200mg tablets per day, always with breakfast or an AM meal, for a period of 20 days. Do not exceed three tablets at any time as this very powerful substance may cause severe headaches. Other than this, Sulbutiamine has no known adverse [autolink]side effects[/autolink].

[FONT=Verdana][B] SOURCES:[/B] Sulbutiamine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased by mail order from the address below.

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#7030a0][h="2"]Vasopressin (Diapid)[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] Vasopressin is a brain hormone that is released by the pituitary gland. It improves attention, concentration, memory retention, and recall (both short-term and long-term). Vasopressin facilitates more effective learning by helping to "imprint" new information in the memory centers of the brain, a function which cannot be achieved without the action of vasopressin.

[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]Cocaine[/autolink], [autolink]LSD[/autolink], [autolink]amphetamines[/autolink], [autolink]Ritalin[/autolink], and Cylert (pemoline) cause a release of vasopressin. Frequent use of these [autolink]drugs[/autolink] can deplete levels of vasopressin with a result of making you slow and dopey. If you feel burnt out, a whiff of vasopressin can [autolink]transform[/autolink] your experience in about 10 seconds because it is a direct application of the specific brain chemical that has been depleted.

[FONT=Verdana] [autolink]Alcohol[/autolink] and [autolink]marijuana[/autolink], however, inhibit the release of vasopressin. A whiff of vasopressin when using these [autolink]drugs[/autolink] will compensate for much of the dopiness caused by them.

[FONT=Verdana] Vasopressin is very useful in situation where there is a large amount of new information to learn. It increases your ability to memorize and recall specific factual information.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]PRECAUTIONS:[/B] Vasopressin usually produces the following [autolink]side effects[/autolink]: runny nose, nasal congestion, itch or irritation of the nasal passages, headache, abdominal cramps, and increased bowel movements. Vasopressin has not been proven safe for use during pregnancy.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]DOSAGE:[/B] Vasopressin usually comes in a nasal spray bottle. Most [autolink]studies[/autolink] showing memory improvement have been done with a dose of 12 to 16 USP per day or about two whiffs three or four times per day. Vasopressin produces a noticeable effect within seconds.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]SOURCES:[/B] Vasopressin is available in the United States. You can buy it if you have a doctor's prescription, but keep in mind that your doctor may not be familiar with the uses I have discussed. It can also be purchased over the counter in Mexico or by mail from overseas (see below).

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[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#7030a0][h="2"]Vinpocetine (Cavinton)[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana] Vinpocetine, like [autolink]Piracetam[/autolink], is a nootropic [autolink]drug[/autolink] and a powerful memory enhancer. It facilitates cerebral metabolism by improving cerebral microcirculation (blood flow), stepping up brain cells' production of ATP (the cellular energy molecule), increasing the brain's use of glucose, and increasing the brain's oxygen utilization.
[FONT=Verdana] Vinpocetine is often used for the treatment of cerebral circulatory disorders such as memory problems, aphasia, apraxia, motor disorders, dizziness, and headache.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]PRECAUTIONS:[/B] Adverse effects are rare, but include hypotension and [autolink]tachycardia[/autolink]. It has no [autolink]drug[/autolink] interactions, no toxicity, and is generally very safe.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]DOSAGE:[/B] One or two 5 mg. tablets per day.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]SOURCES:[/B] Vinpocetine is not sold in the United States. It can be purchased by mail from the address below.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]MAIL ORDER:[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] A little known FDA ruling now allows the importation of a three-month personal supply of [autolink]drugs[/autolink] as long as they are regarded as safe in other countries. Ordering safe but unapproved [autolink]drugs[/autolink] is now legal under the new FDA pilot guidelines, Chapter 971. This compromise was made under pressure from AIDS political action groups because the were being denied access to potentially life-saving substances.
[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana] [h="7"][noedit]============================[/noedit][/h]


[FONT=Verdana]
[U][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="1"]Amino Acids and their Effects[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][/font][/U][FONT=Verdana]
[FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0]
[/COLOR][INDENT][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0] [B][h="2"]Phenylalanine / L-Phenylalanine[/h][/B][/COLOR]
[/FONT][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]converted into tyrosine which is a precursor to noradrenaline (NE) and [autolink]dopamine[/autolink]
[*][FONT=Verdana]like all amino acids best taken on empty stomach since it competes with proteins to cross the blood brain barrier.
[*][FONT=Verdana]requires vitamins C and B-6 for the conversion to NE.
[*][FONT=Verdana]Dosage: 500 - 1000mg along with 1g C, 30-50mg B-6
[*][FONT=Verdana]phenylalanine also stimulates the release of cholecystokinin, which is the body's own appetite-suppressant, can increase sexual interest
[*][FONT=Verdana]improves memory and mental alertness
[*][FONT=Verdana]antidepressant
[*][FONT=Verdana]do not use L-phenylalanine or L-tyrosine if you areusing MAO inhibitors for depression (it can cause amajor elevation in blood pressure).[FONT=Verdana]

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]DL-Phenylalanine (DLPA)[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]combination of synthetic (D) and natural (L) phenylalanine [FONT=Verdana]produces endorphins and stimulates their use [FONT=Verdana]thus, effective painkiller, often better than the opiate derivatives such as [autolink]morphine[/autolink].

[*][FONT=Verdana]nonaddictive, nontoxic

[*][FONT=Verdana]reverse-tolerance effect (pain relief gets better)

[*][FONT=Verdana]strong anti-depressant effect

[*][FONT=Verdana]can be combined with other pain-killers with few bad interactions

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Tyrosine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]precursor to norepinephrine and [autolink]dopamine[/autolink]

[*][FONT=Verdana]non-essential [autolink]amino acid[/autolink] (since PA is converted into it first)

[*][FONT=Verdana]has been studied as an effective aid to [autolink]cocaine[/autolink] [autolink]withdrawal[/autolink]
[*][FONT=Verdana](see L-phenylalanine)[FONT=Verdana]

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Tryptophan[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]precursor to the [autolink]neurotransmitter[/autolink] [autolink]serotonin[/autolink] along with
B6, niacin, and magnesium

[*][FONT=Verdana](actually immediate precursor to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP)
which is the precursor to [autolink]serotonin[/autolink] (5HT))
[*][FONT=Verdana]prolongs slow-wave sleep

[*][FONT=Verdana]reduces pain sensitivity

[*][FONT=Verdana]no effect or increases REMS

[*][FONT=Verdana]has some hypnotic effects

[*][FONT=Verdana]useful for some types of endogenous depression
(has been found as useful as [autolink]imipramine[/autolink] and [autolink]amitriptyline[/autolink])

[*][FONT=Verdana]aids in reducing anxiety and tension
[*][FONT=Verdana]an appetite supressant
[*][FONT=Verdana]dosages have been studied up to 15g
[*][FONT=Verdana]Major Food Sources:
Cottage cheese, milk, meat, fish, turkey, bananas,
dried dates, peanuts, all protein-rich foods.

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Lysine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]needed for growth and enzyme, hormone, antibody production
[*][FONT=Verdana]aids concentration
[*][FONT=Verdana]treatment for some sterility problems
[*][FONT=Verdana]treatment and prevention for herpes infections
[*][FONT=Verdana]aids fatty acid -> energy conversion

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Arginine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]used to increase sperm counts
[*][FONT=Verdana](semen contains up to 80% of arginine)
[*][FONT=Verdana]aids immune response and healing of wounds
[*][FONT=Verdana]helps stored fat metabolism
[*][FONT=Verdana]helps to tone muscle tissue
[*][FONT=Verdana]used for weight-loss in combination with L-ornithine
[*][FONT=Verdana]one [autolink]amino acid[/autolink] required for production of growth hormone

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Ornithine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]similar to arginine
[*][FONT=Verdana]growth hormone (which acts as a fat metabolizer) is
stimulated to be released by ornithine and arginine.
[*][FONT=Verdana]can be used as a slimming technique (while you sleep -
GH is released by the pituitary gland then)

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Glutamine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]converted to glutamic acid, the brain's emergency source of
energy when glucose is in short supply.
[*][FONT=Verdana]precursor to the [autolink]neurotransmitter[/autolink] GABA
[*][FONT=Verdana]neutralizes excess ammonia (which can inhibit proper
brain function)
[*][FONT=Verdana]improves intelligence
[*][FONT=Verdana]helps to control alcoholism
[*][FONT=Verdana]helps to speed ulcer healing
[*][FONT=Verdana]alleviates fatigue, depression, impotence,
schizophrenia, senility

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0] [B][h="2"]L-Aspartic acid[/h][/B][/COLOR]
[/FONT][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]ammonia neutralizer
[*][FONT=Verdana]a study showed improved stamina and endurance in atheletes

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[/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Cysteine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]cystine is its stable form
[*][FONT=Verdana]antioxidant
[*][FONT=Verdana]contains sulfur
[*][FONT=Verdana]protects cellular membranes from "free radical damage"
[*][FONT=Verdana]prevents [autolink]alcohol[/autolink] and cigarette smoke damage to the brain
[*][FONT=Verdana][autolink]stimulant[/autolink] to immune system
[*][FONT=Verdana]believed to be good for antiaging
[*][FONT=Verdana]effective against copper toxicity (eg. Wilson's disease)
[*][FONT=Verdana]protects against X-ray and nuclear radiation
[*][FONT=Verdana]warning: may affect insulin effectiveness

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[FONT=Verdana]

[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Methionine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]antioxidant
[*][FONT=Verdana]contains sulfur
[*][FONT=Verdana]prevents damage of brain cells from toxic heavy metals
[*][FONT=Verdana]important in producing [autolink]neurotransmitters[/autolink] and energy
[*][FONT=Verdana]lowers blood level of histamine
(this may help some types of schizophrenia)
[*][FONT=Verdana]combined with [autolink]choline[/autolink] and folic acid, can prevent some
types of tumor
[*][FONT=Verdana]deficiencies: hair loss, atherosclerosis, cholestorol deposits,
edema, poor urine processing

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Glycine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]treatment for poor pituitary functioning
[*][FONT=Verdana]supplies creatine which is essential for muscle function
(effective against muscular dystrophy)
[*][FONT=Verdana]treatment for [autolink]hypoglycemia[/autolink]
[*][FONT=Verdana]stimulates glucagon which metabolizes glycogen into glucose
[*][FONT=Verdana]antacid
[*][FONT=Verdana]treatment for low blood pH
[*][FONT=Verdana]treatment for leucine imbalance-causing body odor and halitosis

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Taurine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]nonessential [autolink]amino acid[/autolink]
[*][FONT=Verdana]aids efficient conduction of electrical impulses
along nerve pathways
[*][FONT=Verdana]anticonvulsant (esp in combo with glutamic, aspartic acids)

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[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Glutathione[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]tripeptide [autolink]amino acid[/autolink] made of cysteine, glutamic acid and glycine
[*][FONT=Verdana]"triple threat" antiaging
[*][FONT=Verdana]antioxidant
[*][FONT=Verdana]anti-tumor agent
[*][FONT=Verdana]respiratory accelerator in the brain
[*][FONT=Verdana]used in the treatment of: allergies, cataracts, diabetes,
[autolink]hypoglycemia[/autolink], arthritis
[*][FONT=Verdana]prevents some [autolink]side effects[/autolink] of chemotherapy and X-ray radiation
[*][FONT=Verdana]protects against some harmful side-effects of cigarrette smoke
and [autolink]alcohol[/autolink]

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[FONT=Verdana]

[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/LIST][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana]
[INDENT][B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#0070c0][h="2"]L-Carnatine[/h][/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana]
[/font][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana]
[LIST]
[*][FONT=Verdana]newly discovered [autolink]amino acid[/autolink]
[*][FONT=Verdana]aids stored fat -> energy conversion
[*][FONT=Verdana]helps: [autolink]hypoglycemia[/autolink], reduces angina attacks, diabetes,
liver disease, kidney disease
[*][FONT=Verdana]deficiency causes heart tissue damage


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[FONT=Verdana][h="7"][noedit]============================[/noedit][/h]

[FONT=Verdana]
[B][FONT=Verdana][COLOR=#c00000][U][h="1"]Stacks[/h][/U] [/COLOR][/FONT][/B][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana](Combinations)[FONT=Verdana]

[INDENT][FONT=Verdana] [B]Simple Stack :[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 1-2 grams [autolink]piracetam[/autolink] every 8 hours with 5 grams lecithin daily.


[FONT=Verdana] [B]Study Stack - Simple :[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 1-2 grams [autolink]piracetam[/autolink] every 8 hours / 5 grams lecithin / 10mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours


[FONT=Verdana][B] Advanced Stack :[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 2 grams [autolink]piracetam[/autolink] every 8 hours
[FONT=Verdana] 500 mg [autolink]aniracetam[/autolink] every 8 hours
[FONT=Verdana] 1 gram [autolink]Alpha GPC[/autolink] every 8 hours


[FONT=Verdana][B]Study Stack - advanced :[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 1.5 grams [autolink]piracetam[/autolink] every 8 hours
[FONT=Verdana] 500 mg [autolink]aniracetam[/autolink] every 8 hours
[FONT=Verdana] 1.5 grams [autolink]Alpha GPC[/autolink] every 8 hours
[FONT=Verdana] 15 mg Vinpocetine every 8 hours
[FONT=Verdana] 150 mcg Huperzine every 8 hours


[FONT=Verdana][B] Anxiety / Concentration Stack :[/B]
[FONT=Verdana]500 mg [autolink]aniracetam[/autolink] every 8 hours
[FONT=Verdana] 200 mg [autolink]theanine[/autolink] every 8 hours (plan for one dose prior to a speech or presentation)


[FONT=Verdana] [B]After all test are done stack :[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] 500mg [autolink]Theanine[/autolink]
[FONT=Verdana] 1.5 grams [autolink]Phenibut[/autolink] (do not study on [autolink]phenibut[/autolink])
[FONT=Verdana] 5 grams lecithin


[FONT=Verdana][B][autolink]Neurotransmitter[/autolink] boosting Formula[/B][FONT=Verdana] (AM & PM)
[FONT=Verdana] [I]This is basically a [autolink]neurotransmitter[/autolink] boosting formula and benefits those[/I]
[FONT=Verdana][I] who don't have a [autolink]drug[/autolink] abuse problem too.[/I][INDENT][FONT=Verdana][B]AM[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] L-tyrosine 250 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] D,L phenylalanine 125 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Pantothenic acid 25 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] PABA 25 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] DMAE 25 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Rubidium Cl 25 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Tocopherol acetate 12.5 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Beta carotene 2.5 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Manganese (gluconate) 2.5 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Folic acid 0.1 mg
[FONT=Verdana] Copper gluconate .125 mg
[FONT=Verdana] Selenium .25 mg.

[FONT=Verdana] [B]PM[/B]
[FONT=Verdana] Niacinamide (ascorbate) 250 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Taurine 50 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Magnesium oxide 50 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Pyridoxine 25 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Niacin 12.5 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Riboflavin 12.5 mg
[FONT=Verdana] Zinc 2.5 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Beta carotene 2.5 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Chromium (GTF) .025 mg.
[FONT=Verdana] Vitamin B12 .0125 mg.
[/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/INDENT][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][FONT=Verdana][h="7"][noedit]============================[/noedit][/h]


[h="1"]References[/h]

[URL]http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=26786[/URL]

Organized and compiled by: Lukeoca
[VAR]description|There is a recommendation of "nootropic agents" not sorted by class (structure), function, or availability (from OTC, grey market, and to Schedule I). They could use reorganization and conta[/VAR][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/font][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT][/FONT]

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